onem-10k_20201231.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-39203

 

1LIFE HEALTHCARE, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

76-0707204

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

One Embarcadero Center, Suite 1900

San Francisco, CA 94111

94111

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

(415) 814-0927

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

 

ONEM

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  No 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on The Nasdaq Stock Market on June 30, 2020, was $2.5 billion. The calculation of the aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity excludes 58,490,353 shares of common stock of the Registrant held by executive officers, directors and stockholders that the Registrant concluded were affiliates of the Registrant on that date. Exclusion of such shares should not be construed to indicate that any such person possesses the power, direct or indirect, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the Registrant or that such person is controlled by or under common control with the Registrant.

The number of shares of Registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding as of February 26, 2021 was 136,840,853.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. The Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the Registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

18

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

58

Item 2.

Properties

58

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

58

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

58

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

59

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

62

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

64

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

83

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

84

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

84

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

84

Item 9B.

Other Information

86

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

87

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

87

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

87

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

87

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

87

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

88

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

90

 

 

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Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. Forward-looking statements are based on our management's beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “goal,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “project,” “predict,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause our actual results, performance, time frames or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance, time frames or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We discuss many of these risks, uncertainties and other factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors,” including, among other things:

 

 

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;

 

 

 

variance in our financial performance from expectations of securities analysts or investors;

 

 

 

changes in our projected operating and financial results;

 

 

 

changes in the pricing we offer our members;

 

 

 

our relationships with our health network partners and enterprise clients and any changes to or terminations of our contracts with the health network partners or enterprise clients;

 

 

 

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our solutions and services;

 

 

 

the impact of COVID-19 on our financial performance, financial condition and results of operations, and the financial performance and financial condition of our health network partners, on our payers, our enterprise clients and others;

 

 

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant business or strategic developments, acquisitions or new offerings;

 

 

 

actual or anticipated developments in our business, our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally;

 

 

 

publicity associated with issues with our services and technology platform;

 

 

 

our involvement in litigation, including medical malpractice claims and consumer class actions;

 

 

 

any governmental investigations or inquiries into our business and operations or challenges to our relationships with the One Medical PCs under the Administrative Services Agreements (“ASAs”);

 

 

 

future sales of our common stock or other securities, by us or our stockholders;

 

 

 

changes in senior management or key personnel;

 

 

 

developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;

 

 

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations or principles;

 

 

 

the trading volume of our common stock;

 

 

 

general economic, regulatory and market conditions;

 

 

 

our estimates of our market opportunity and changes in the anticipated future size and growth rate of our market;

 

 

 

our ability to retain and recruit key personnel and expand our sales force;

 

 

 

the ability of the One Medical PCs to attract and retain high quality providers;

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our ability to fund our working capital requirements; and

 

 

 

our compliance with, and the cost of, federal, state and foreign regulatory requirements.

These risks are not exhaustive. Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our current beliefs, estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this filing, and information contained in this filing should not be relied upon as representing our estimates as of any subsequent date. You should read this Annual Report on Form 10-K completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

In addition, statements including “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the filing date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

In this report, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, (i) all references to “One Medical,” “we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company” mean 1Life Healthcare, Inc. and its consolidated affiliated professional entities, (ii) all references to “1Life” refer to 1Life Healthcare, Inc. and not to its consolidated affiliated professional entities and (iii) all references to the “One Medical PCs” refer to the professional entities affiliated with 1Life through administrative services agreements. 1Life and the One Medical PCs do business under the “One Medical” brand.

 

 

 

iii


PART I

 

Item 1. Business.

Overview

Our vision is to delight millions of members with better health and better care while reducing the total cost of care. Our mission is to transform health care for all through our human-centered, technology-powered model. We are a membership-based primary care platform with seamless digital health and inviting in-office care, convenient to where people work, shop, live and click. We are disrupting health care from within the existing ecosystem by simultaneously addressing the frustrations and unmet needs of key stakeholders, which include consumers, employers, providers and health networks. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 549,000 members in 13 markets in the United States and more than 8,000 enterprise clients.

The current state of the healthcare ecosystem leaves key stakeholders frustrated and with unmet needs.

 

Consumers. According to a 2016 report, 81% of consumers are dissatisfied with their healthcare experience, in part due to limited after-hours and digital access, long wait times for appointments, extended in-office delays, short and impersonal visits, uninviting medical offices in inconvenient locations, constrained access to specialists and a lack of care coordination across clinical settings.

 

Employers. Employers find their health benefit offerings often underperforming on such fundamental objectives as attracting and engaging employees, improving employee productivity, reducing absenteeism, producing better health outcomes, increasing the safety of the workplace through screening and treating communicable diseases such as Covid-19, or managing healthcare costs.

 

Providers. Within primary care, according to a 2019 Mayo Clinic report, over 50% of family physicians show symptoms of burnout, driven in part by misaligned fee-for-service compensation approaches incentivizing short transactional interactions, and excessive administrative tasks associated with burdensome electronic health record (“EHR”) systems and convoluted insurance procedures.

 

Health Networks. Health systems and health plans have been looking to develop coordinated networks of care to better attract patients, increase attributable lives and better integrate primary care with specialty services for improved patient outcomes and lower costs. Yet even with major investments in provider groups, care management programs and technology systems, health networks have struggled to deliver on these objectives.

The U.S. primary care market is estimated to be approximately $260 billion in 2021, including approximately $170 billion for the commercially insured population. We estimate that the 13 markets in which we are physically present represent approximately $38 billion in primary care spend within the commercially insured population under age 65. While our members can access our digital services nationally, we believe we can expand our physical presence across the United States. The 50 largest metropolitan statistical areas in the U.S. represent an estimated market opportunity of approximately $80 billion within the commercially insured population under age 65. We expect our total addressable market to grow as we further expand into additional services, serve additional populations and explore alternative risk-sharing reimbursement models.

We have developed a modernized healthcare membership model based on direct consumer enrollment as well as employer sponsorship. Our annual membership model includes seamless access to 24/7 digital health services paired with inviting in-office care routinely covered under health insurance programs. Our technology helps drive high monthly active usage within our membership, promoting ongoing and longitudinal patient relationships for better health outcomes and high member retention. Our technology also helps our service-minded team in building trust and rapport with our members by facilitating proactive digital health outreach as well as on-demand and scheduled virtual and in-office care. Our digital health services and well-appointed offices, which tend to be located in highly convenient locations, are staffed by a team of clinicians who are not paid on a fee-for-service basis, and therefore free of misaligned compensation incentives prevalent in health care. Additionally, we have developed clinically integrated partnerships with health networks, better coordinating more timely access to specialty care by members when needed, while advancing value-based care for employers through clinical and digital integration.

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Together, these components of our human-centered and technology-powered model allow us to deliver better results for key stakeholders.

 

Consumers. We delight consumers with a superior experience as evidenced by our average Net Promoter Score, or NPS, of 90 over the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 and our key primary care-related Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (“HEDIS”) quality measures. NPS measures the willingness of consumers to recommend a company’s products or services to others. We use NPS as a proxy for gauging our members’ overall satisfaction with our providers and loyalty to the One Medical brand. Our NPS is based on responses from a single question survey provided to members after in-office visits which asks members how likely they are to recommend their One Medical provider to a friend or colleague. We calculate our NPS using the standard method of subtracting the percentage of members who respond that they are not likely to recommend our providers from the percentage of members that respond that they are likely to recommend our providers, with responses based on a scale of 0 to 10. The resulting NPS is an index that ranges from a low of -100 to a high of 100.

Our technology platform advances consumer engagement and health through proactive digital health screenings, post-visit digital follow-ups, real-time access to medical records, and around-the-clock availability of our friendly and knowledgeable providers.

Our members receive access to 24/7 on-demand digital health services with quick response times. Members also have access to scheduled virtual visits as well as inviting in-office care in convenient locations with warm and caring staff. In addition to supporting members with routine and preventative primary, chronic and acute care, we provide lab- and immunization services, COVID-19 testing and care, behavioral health, women’s health, men’s health, LGBTQ+ care, pediatrics, sports medicine, lifestyle and wellbeing programs.

 

Employers. We support employers across a diverse set of industries in achieving key goals of their health benefits offerings such as attracting and engaging employees, improving employee productivity and wellbeing, and delivering higher levels of value-based care. We are also helping them increase the safety of their workplace through screening for, treating, and immunizing against communicable diseases such as COVID-19. With real-time video and phone consults available typically within minutes, and same and next day in-office appointments, we have demonstrated a 41% reduction in emergency room visits and total employer cost savings of 8% or more based on a 2018 report. Additionally, a peer-reviewed study published in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) Network Open in 2020 linked our membership-based, primary care model combining virtual, near-site and work-site services with 45% lower total medical and prescription claims costs for one employer, including 54% lower spending on specialty care, 43% lower spending on surgery, 33% lower spending on emergency department care, and 26% lower spending on prescriptions. Since then, we have further evolved our service offering, including scheduled virtual visits or behavioral health visits, which we believe provides additional value to employers and their employees. We have also launched a 24/7 virtual only service offering which is available exclusively to employers in geographies where we do not yet have a physical presence. This service offering allows employers to provide One Medical to all of their employees regardless of their location, while providing us with better insights about employer demographics and potential future demand for our other offerings. Employers typically cover our membership fee for their employees, with over 75% of employers also covering their employees’ dependents’ memberships as of December 31, 2020. Employers can add our services at any point during the year, as our services typically fit within their existing health benefits offerings and are typically covered under an employer’s routine health insurance benefit program, allowing for seamless and quick implementation. Within enterprise clients, our median estimated activation rate as of December 31, 2020, was over 40%, which we believe we can increase over time. We define estimated activation rate for any enterprise client at a given time as the percentage of eligible lives enrolled as members. Some of our enterprise clients offer membership benefits to the dependents of their employees, for which we assume eligible lives include one dependent per employee.

 

Providers. Our culture, technology, team-based approach, and salaried provider model help address the fundamental issues driving physician burnout. Our culture allows us to attract and retain top board-certified physicians and premier team members. We are focused on continuing to increase our diversity amongst providers so that our provider base reflects the diversity of the communities and members we serve. Our proprietary technology platform allows for meaningful reductions in desktop medicine burdens, which are the excessive administrative hassles associated with the use of EHRs. Our support

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team takes on many of the administrative burdens for scheduling and insurance coordination. Our in-office and virtual medical teams jointly deliver longitudinal health care. Our salary-based provider compensation model incentivizes delivery of the right care at the right time, without the adverse financial incentives that fee-for-service or capitated compensation systems can have on clinical decision-making.

 

Health Networks. Health networks partner with us for consumer-driven care, direct-to-employer relationships and coordinated networks of attributable lives. Through our partnerships, we connect our primarily working-age, commercially insured membership base with health networks without the costs and risks these health networks typically face in the development of their own primary care networks. We clinically and digitally integrate with our health network partners to advance more seamless member access to partner specialists and facilities when needed, while supporting reductions in duplicative testing and excessive delays often seen across uncoordinated healthcare settings. Such coordinated care can deliver better service levels and outcomes for consumers, while advancing employee productivity and value-based care to employers.

We believe our model is highly scalable. We are physically present in 13 markets today, including Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Orange County, Phoenix, Portland, San Diego, the San Francisco Bay Area, Seattle, and Washington, D.C., and primarily serve a working-age, commercially-insured population and associated dependents. As of December 31, 2020, we had 107 physical offices, including some employer on-site clinics. Additionally, our members can access our 24/7 digital health services nationwide. As of December 31, 2020, we had greater than 8,000 enterprise clients of various sizes across industries. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, we retained 9 out of 10 of our consumer members and more than 90% of our enterprise contract value. We grew our membership by 339% from December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020.

We derive net revenue from multiple stakeholders, including (i) consumers, (ii) enterprise clients such as employers, schools, and universities, and (iii) health networks. We recognize net revenue as (i) membership revenue from enterprise clients and consumer subscription fees, which are typically annual in nature, (ii) partnership revenue predominantly on a per member per month (“PMPM”) basis from health networks, largely fixed payments from enterprise clients for on-site medical services, COVID-19 on-site services, and capitation payments from Independent Physician Associations (“IPAs”), and (iii) net patient service revenue on a per visit basis from health insurers and patients. We are in-network with most health insurance plans in all of our markets.

Chief Technology Officer Transition

On March 16, 2021, Kimber Lockhart informed us of her intent to step back from her role as Chief Technology Officer of 1Life upon return from her personal leave of absence and to transition to become a part-time employee of 1Life. The effective date for Ms. Lockhart’s resignation as Chief Technology Officer has not been determined and Ms. Lockhart intends to continue to serve as Chief Technology Officer until her successor is identified and has moved into the role. We have commenced a search for a replacement Chief Technology Officer.

 

Industry Challenges and Our Opportunity

The current state of the healthcare ecosystem leaves key stakeholders frustrated and with unmet needs, delivering suboptimal results for consumers, employers, providers and health networks. We believe that these unmet needs represent a significant opportunity for us.

Consumers

According to a 2016 report, approximately 81% of consumers are dissatisfied with their healthcare experience. Their frustrations include long lead times to schedule physician appointments and long waits once checked-in at provider offices. Appointments often occur in crowded medical offices and are typically short in duration, affording limited time to develop deeper provider-patient relationships. Opportunities to engage with providers before and after visits, as well as during nights and weekends, are often limited or non-existent, even though healthcare needs are not constrained to the operating hours of provider offices. Care delivered is also often uncoordinated with providers, leaving consumers to navigate their own way through a complex system.

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Employers

To attract and retain staff, employers are making significant investments in health benefits; yet, as commercial insurance costs have reached record highs, employers and employees remain frustrated. Barriers to accessing timely care during the day and after business hours cause employees to miss work and lose productivity. As a result, many employees self-direct themselves to higher cost settings such as emergency rooms. Additionally, uncoordinated care across primary care, specialty care and behavioral health settings creates frustration and causes excessive spending. According to the National Academy of Medicine, approximately 30% of all U.S. healthcare spending is estimated to be avoidable wasted spending.

Providers

By predominantly compensating primary care providers on volume, the prevalent fee-for-service approach seen within the industry incentivizes short and transactional medical encounters, often with insufficient time to address underlying issues related to acute care, chronic disease, and behavioral health issues. Such fee-for-service compensation may also incentivize greater referrals to specialists for more time-intensive cases, even when such patients could otherwise be treated effectively within primary care. Management of preventive care and chronic conditions through longitudinal relationships is typically less-reimbursed, if paid for at all. In addition, providers often find themselves performing excessive administrative tasks that could be better performed by other staff or eliminated altogether. They suffer from rising administrative time spent populating data into cumbersome EHR systems, and documentation hassles associated with insurance procedures. These dynamics contribute to lower job satisfaction and provider burnout.

Health Networks

While many health networks have sought to better integrate primary care with specialty and hospital care, they may underperform on service, access, and coordination of care. This is partly due to their internal incentive systems, processes, and technologies, which are typically focused on addressing high revenue specialty care, rather than best supporting primary care. Moreover, primary care networks can be very costly to develop, and can require significant ongoing investments to operate, while often underperforming on strategic and financial objectives. According to the American Hospital Association’s Futurescan survey of hospital CEOs and leaders published in 2019, 75% of hospital and health systems operate their primary care networks at a loss or are willing to do so, with 76% of health system leaders indicating they are pursuing or are likely to pursue external relationships to advance their physician networks and better serve consumers.

We have developed a human-centered, technology-powered primary care model that simultaneously addresses the aforementioned frustrations and unmet needs of key stakeholders. As we continue to deploy our model at scale, we disrupt the healthcare ecosystem from within its current structure through our:

 

modernized member-based model that is based on direct consumer enrollment as well as employer sponsorship;

 

seamless care delivery that integrates across multiple digital and in-person modalities;

 

inviting offices with high quality service in convenient locations;

 

partnerships with health networks;

 

alignment with payers;

 

premier salaried medical group;

 

advanced technology-powered systems; and

 

service-oriented team implementing Lean processes.

Our Value Proposition

Our modernized human-centered and technology-powered primary care model simultaneously addresses the frustrations and unmet needs faced by key stakeholders.

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Value Proposition for Consumers

 

Greater engagement for better health and better care. We regularly and proactively engage our members digitally and in-person. Members can digitally access medical information, prescriptions, lab results and other health data, and can reach out to our team regarding medical issues or health questions around-the-clock. Members may receive digital health status check-ins before and after office encounters, and our technology facilitates further follow-up with our providers.

 

Unique digital health experience. Our dedicated and compassionate providers and other team members deliver 24/7 digital care. Members engage through our website or mobile app in timely synchronous and asynchronous interactions, selecting their communication modality of choice, including messaging, text, voice and video. Our in-house virtual team delivers 24/7 service to address health concerns and administrative questions, coordinating with our in-office providers through a common EHR that is shared across digital and in-office settings.

 

Superior in-office care experience. We are focused on providing kind and attentive in-person care in aesthetically pleasing offices with contemporary interior designs. We offer same- or next-day appointments with minimal wait upon arrival in locations convenient to where consumers work, shop and live. Members enter into first-name relationships with providers who greet them upon arrival and walk them out upon appointment completion. Our approach allows for more time to thoroughly address a broader array of issues and to develop deeper relationships than traditional primary care settings.

 

Longitudinal approach to care. Our approach treats the whole person by including the physical, mental, social, emotional and administrative needs of our members. In addition to supporting members with routine and preventative primary, chronic and acute care, we provide lab- and immunization services, COVID-19 testing and care, behavioral health, women’s health, men’s health, LGBTQ+ care, pediatrics, sports medicine, lifestyle and wellbeing programs. We proactively reach out to members to assess their health status and mental wellness and follow up with reminders on key health initiatives. These initiatives support the health of our members with the goal of avoiding more costly care in the future.

 

Greater care coordination. We can serve as a trusted advisor to our members and, through our administrative teams and technology, help them better navigate the healthcare ecosystem. Our health network partnerships further advance clinically and digitally integrated care across primary, specialty and acute care settings by streamlining access to leading specialists and reducing delays and duplicative tests.

 

Improved health outcomes. We help drive better health outcomes for our members, as reflected in our key primary care-related HEDIS quality metrics. To prevent avoidable conditions and advance health, we can conduct population health initiatives such as proactively screening for cancers, chronic diseases, anxiety and depression.

 

COVID-19. We offer COVID-19 testing and counseling across all of our markets, including in our offices and in several mobile COVID-19 testing sites. We also administer COVID-19 vaccines in select geographies.

 

Value Proposition for Employers

 

Differentiated and highly valued employee benefit. We believe our model enhances the benefits offering of employers, improving their recruitment and retention of talent. During 2020, we expanded our service platform with several new offerings that support both employers and their employees, including the following:

 

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Healthy Together, our COVID-19 screening, testing, and vaccination program for employers, schools and universities;

 

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Mindset by One Medical, our behavioral health service; and,

 

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One Medical Now, an expansion of our 24/7 on-demand digital health solutions to employees of our enterprise clients that are located outside of our physical markets.

 

Increased workforce productivity. We reduce time away from work as well as employee distraction related to illness, injury or other medical conditions by providing quick and convenient access to care for

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employees and dependents, including virtual care. With longer appointments, we address more needs in our primary care setting, reducing avoidable referrals and additional time away from work. Additionally, our ability to facilitate timely specialist appointments with our health network partners further reduces an employee’s distraction while waiting for specialty care.

 

Reduced costs. We reduce health care costs by increasing employee productivity and providing value-based care, substituting higher cost emergency room and specialty services with lower-cost primary care. We help avoid unnecessary testing and higher cost branded prescriptions through best practice clinical protocols embedded in our technology. For example, we have demonstrated a 41% reduction in emergency room visits and total employer cost savings of 8% or more. A peer-reviewed study published in JAMA Network Open in 2020 linked our membership-based, primary care model combining virtual, near-site and work-site services with 45% lower total medical and prescription claims costs for one employer.

 

Insights on improving employee health and value-based care. We support population health improvement and medical cost assessment by analyzing anonymized aggregated health record information and employee health engagement patterns. We work with employers to better understand the health needs of their employees as well as to review overall utilization patterns. Our aggregated anonymized EHR information allows for timelier and deeper insights to help employers improve their health benefits programs and achieve higher levels of value.

Value Proposition for Providers

 

More fulfilling way to practice. Our providers develop meaningful relationships with our members over time, allowing them to help improve healthy behaviors and better coordinate member health needs. Their relationships with members are more longitudinal and less transactional. Our providers are also supported by our technology platform which enables them to practice at the top of their license, making their work more professionally rewarding while reducing factors driving burnout.

 

Team-based approach across care modalities. Our in-office providers and our virtual team collaborate for longitudinal health care across time and settings. Our virtual care team and administrative specialists reduce our in-office providers’ workloads while promoting 24/7 care. Providers can better focus on caring for patients during clinical interactions, while excessive administrative tasks can be handled by other team members.

 

Purpose-built technology platform. Our proprietary technology platform is developed with significant provider input and is purpose-built for primary care. For example, our technology is focused on capturing and surfacing the most meaningful clinical insights in a workflow that is intuitive to providers. Our platform meaningfully reduces administrative workloads by intelligently automating, streamlining and routing tasks across our network to the most appropriate team member, resulting in faster response times while freeing up providers to focus on caring for members.

 

Salaried model with flexible work schedules. Our salaried model avoids adverse fee-for-service and capitation incentives, and does not financially reward or penalize our providers based on utilization. It supports the delivery of the right amount of care in the best setting without impacting provider take-home pay. Additionally, we have flexible work arrangements and opportunities to practice in office or virtually. We believe this results in a better quality of life and work-life balance. With a presence in markets across the country, we also increasingly offer providers mobility opportunities.

Value Proposition for Health Networks

 

Expansion of health networks. Our partnership model allows health networks to augment their existing primary care and network strategies, without significant additional investment in capital, technology or management resources. Partnering with us can be a more effective, expeditious, economical, and less risky way of developing a coordinated network of attributable lives. Additionally, our model can better position health networks with consumers and employers by focusing on consumer-driven care and facilitating direct-to-employer relationships.

 

Attractive customer base. Health networks look to partner with us to proactively establish relationships with our members. These partnerships allow health networks to better connect with our largely commercially insured membership base.

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Coordinated care. We clinically and digitally integrate our modernized primary care model with our health network partners’ provider networks, better coordinating care for members across a continuum of settings. We digitally integrate EHR information, avoiding duplicative testing often seen when patients are referred across care settings. Through better coordination, we provide members with more seamless access to specialty care when needed. We simultaneously reduce excessive health network administrative costs by linking our referral processes and digital technologies with health network partners. This coordination of care can lead to better experiences and outcomes for members, as well as reduced costs.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe the following are our key competitive strengths.

Modernized Membership-Based Model

Our membership-based model supports ongoing and longitudinal relationships where we can serve as trusted advisors to our members and as partners to our enterprise clients. Our model also generates stable revenue which is recurring in nature. By having an enrolled population of members, we can proactively reach out to members to encourage adherence to treatment protocols or to check in on their care needs. The relationship inherent in a membership model is very different than the traditional model of transactional patient care visits, where a provider typically only engages with a patient if the patient comes in for a visit. We proactively engage with our members on a regular basis through our digital platform and in our welcoming offices, and believe we are better able to develop long-term connections and relationships with them.

Extraordinary Customer Experience

Our human-centered approach is focused on providing a superior experience to our members, as evidenced by the bundling of services within our membership model, the way we hire and train our team, the culture of caring we foster, our easy-to-use technology, our 24/7 digital health, our inviting in-office care, our compassionate and salaried providers and our streamlined Lean processes. Whether members call, click or visit, they experience outstanding service, as evidenced by our average NPS of 90 over the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. See “Overview” section above for a description of how we calculate NPS. Our virtual care is available around-the-clock. Our inviting medical offices are well-appointed and modern, and our providers and staff are very friendly and trained in customer service. We are committed to not keeping members waiting long, if at all, and our longer appointments provide our team with more time to address member needs. Our technology is designed to promote frictionless access, ease of use and high engagement. We look to address the whole-person needs of our members, providing physical and mental health services, lab services, and coordinating specialty services with health network partners. Our administrative staff is available to answer benefits questions and help navigate the healthcare ecosystem on behalf of our members.

Simultaneously Addressing the Needs of Consumers, Employers, Providers and Health Networks

Our modernized model simultaneously addresses the frustrations and unmet needs of key stakeholders, transforming health care from within the current ecosystem. For consumers, we deliver an extraordinary experience and superior results, including on key primary care-related HEDIS quality measures. For employers, we help improve employee productivity through frictionless access to virtual and in-office care and reduce medical costs by avoiding unnecessary emergency room and specialty visits. For providers, we create a more engaging and manageable primary care work environment by leveraging a salaried model and our proprietary technology. With health networks, we clinically integrate to expand their connections to commercially insured enrollees, and we are in-network with most health insurance plans in all of our markets. Accordingly, we believe our model delivers differentiated value to all key stakeholders simultaneously within the current healthcare ecosystem.

Engaged, Salaried Providers Delivering Best-in-Class Care

We offer an outstanding environment to practice primary care, as reflected in our high provider retention rates and engagement scores. Our salaried compensation approach allows our providers to deliver patient-centered care without impacting their pay as might be the case under fee-for-service compensation approaches. Our providers also have significantly fewer EHR tasks to complete due to our proprietary technology that is purpose-built for primary care, freeing up their time to focus on delivering outstanding clinical care.

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Proprietary Technology Platform

Our ability to simultaneously deliver significant value to key stakeholders is deeply rooted in our purpose-built, modernized technology platform. Our proprietary technology platform powers all aspects of our company: engaging members, supporting providers and advancing business objectives. Our technology allows us to proactively engage members with personalized clinical outreach and improve health through online scheduling, virtual provider visits and ready access to health information. Our technology also supports providers by leveraging machine learning to reduce and re-route tasks that needlessly create administrative burdens while supporting team-based care. This allows providers to spend more time delivering clinical care, while facilitating higher levels of member responsiveness. Our technology also advances operational efficiencies, as our product designers and engineers collaborate closely with clinical and operational team members to observe and optimize workflows. Our platform is built on a modern cloud-based technology stack, employing Agile development cycles and a DevOps approach to infrastructure. Our modular, service-oriented architecture utilizes Application Programming Interface (“API”) standards for ease of implementing new functionalities and integrating with external systems.

Operating Platform for High Performance at Scale

Our approach for operating and scaling our platform is based on leading process improvement and management practices. We leverage Lean methodologies for process improvement, human-centered design thinking, behavioral design, and Agile methodologies for software development to deliver high performance levels at scale. Our operational processes, software development and staffing models, including our virtual medical team, are designed to work together to create efficiencies and uniquely achieve our objectives. Moreover, we standardize our processes and practices so we can efficiently deliver consistent outcomes at scale across existing and new markets, which we believe will further drive our financial performance.

Highly Experienced Management Team

Our management team has extensive experience working with leading health systems, health plans, technology companies, service organizations, consumer brands, and enterprise-sales-driven companies. Our leadership embodies our cultural alignment around our behavioral tenants of being human-centered, team-based, unbounded in thinking, driven to excel, and intellectually curious. Our leaders help organize teams of clinicians, technologists and staff to regularly engage together in designing processes and software to further advance our objectives. Accordingly, our team is well positioned to execute on our objectives and advance an outstanding workplace environment.

Our Growth Strategies

To transform health care at scale, we can pursue growth through the following avenues.

Grow consumer and enterprise membership in existing markets

We have significant opportunities to increase membership in our existing markets through (i) sales to new consumers and enterprise clients, (ii) expansion of the number of enrolled members, including dependents, within our enterprise clients and (iii) adding other potential services. As of December 31, 2020, we had more than 8,000 enterprise clients. Of our 549,000 members as of December 31, 2020, 58% were from our enterprise clients. Within enterprise clients, our median activation rate as of December 31, 2020 was over 40%, We believe the number of clients and the number of enrolled members will increase over time as our brand awareness grows and our customer relationships mature. We define estimated activation rate for any enterprise client at a given time as the percentage of eligible lives enrolled as members. Some of our enterprise clients offer membership benefits to the dependents of their employees, for which we assume eligible lives include one dependent per employee. Additionally, while the percentage of enterprise clients offering our services to dependents of their employees has grown from 67% in 2016 to over 75% as of December 31, 2020, we believe we have significant room for further growth with dependents. Furthermore, as we continue to scale our presence, we anticipate an increasing number of larger national and regional employers will look to partner with us for our services.

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Expand into new markets

We are physically present in 13 markets with plans to enter four new markets in 2021. We assess potential markets using a variety of metrics, including population demographics and density, employer presence, potential health network partners, and other factors. In addition, we have launched One Medical Now, a new service offering that provides 24/7 access to unlimited virtual care nationwide, which is sold to new and existing enterprise clients to cover employees in geographies where we are not yet physically present. We do not count employees who have access to or use One Medical Now as members, but we believe this new virtual offering may help us enroll new members in a new geography if and when we decide to offer our complete product offering, which includes a physical footprint. We believe our complete offering is viable in most geographies across the United States.

Grow health network partnerships

To accelerate our growth and presence, we can extend existing health network partnerships into new markets where our partners may also have a presence, or we can enter into new health network partnerships in new markets. In 2020, we entered into four new markets, two of which were through expansion with existing health network partnerships and two were with new health network partnerships. We typically partner with one health network in a given market, and as that partner grows its market presence, we can grow even further with them.

Expand services and populations

Our core offering today is centered on the commercially insured segment. In addition to supporting members with routine and preventative primary, chronic and acute care, we typically provide lab and immunization services, women’s health, men’s health, LGBTQ+ care, pediatrics, sports medicine, lifestyle and wellbeing programs. In addition, throughout 2020, we launched

 

COVID-19 testing, and counseling across all of our markets, including in our offices and in several mobile COVID-19 testing sites;

 

COVID-19 vaccinations in select geographies;

 

Healthy Together, our COVID-19 screening and testing program for employers, schools and universities;

 

Mindset by One Medical, our behavioral health service integrated within primary care; and

 

One Medical Now, an expansion of our 24/7 on-demand digital health solutions to employees of enterprise clients located in geographies where we are not yet physically present.

 

Remote Visits, where our providers perform typical primary care visits with our members remotely from either one of our offices or from a provider’s home.

 

In addition to continued expansion of the services we offer to the commercially insured segment, we believe our model is also well positioned for other populations such as Medicare, and other reimbursement mechanisms such as shared savings reimbursement models, capitation, and other accountable care approaches, where we can capitalize on our population health capabilities. Our technology has also been developed with modern APIs to enable direct integration with channel partners and other third-party offerings, increasing the potential breadth of our modernized platform solution.

Competition

We compete in a highly fragmented primary care market with direct and indirect competitors that offer varying services to key stakeholders such as consumers, employers, providers, and health networks. Our competitive success is contingent on our ability to simultaneously address the needs of key stakeholders efficiently and with superior outcomes at scale. We expect to face increasing competition, both from current competitors, who may be well-established and enjoy greater resources or other strategic advantages to compete for some or all key stakeholders in our markets, as well as new entrants into our market.

We believe our most direct competition today is from primary care providers who are employed by or affiliated with health networks. Due to our growing number of partnerships with these health networks, we increasingly view

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primary care providers affiliated with such health networks as potential partners as opposed to direct competitors. We also face competition from direct-to-consumer solutions or employer-focused on-site primary care offerings. These competitors may be narrower in their competitive footprint and may not address all the key stakeholders we serve simultaneously. Our indirect competitors also include episodic point solutions such as telemedicine offerings as well as urgent care providers. These offerings may typically pay providers on a fee-for-service basis rather than the salaried model we employ. Given the size of the healthcare industry and the extent of unmet needs, we expect additional competition, potentially from new companies, including smaller emerging companies which could introduce new solutions and services, as well as other incumbent players in the healthcare industry or from other industries who could develop their own offerings and may have substantial resources and relationships to leverage. In particular, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, existing or new competitors have developed or further invested in telemedicine and remote medicine programs and ventures, which would compete with our virtual care offerings. With the emergence of new technologies and market entrants, we expect to face increasing competition over time, which we believe will generally increase awareness of the need for modernized primary care models and other innovative solutions in the United States and globally.

The principal competitive factors in our industry include:

 

patient engagement, satisfaction and utilization;

 

convenience, accessibility and availability;

 

brand awareness and reputation;

 

technology capabilities including interoperability with legacy enterprise and health network infrastructures;

 

ability to address the needs of employers and payers;

 

ability to attract and retain quality providers;

 

ability to reduce costs;

 

level of participation in insurance plans;

 

alignment with health networks;

 

domain expertise in health care, technology, sales and service;

 

scalability of models; and

 

operational execution abilities.

We believe that we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors and we believe the offerings of competitors inadequately address the needs of key stakeholders simultaneously or fail to do so at scale.

Sales and Marketing

Our marketing and sales initiatives focus on member growth through two primary avenues: directly acquiring consumer members, and signing agreements with employers that sponsor employee memberships as part of their benefits packages. We use marketing and sales strategies to reach consumers as well as enterprise benefits leaders. Enterprise marketing and sales strategies also include account-based marketing, business development initiatives, and client service teams focused on customer acquisition, employee enrollment, and member engagement. With a growing national model, we aspire to be the most loved brand in health care. We anchor our brand messaging on how we delight our members with care for real life.

Consumer Sales & Marketing

When we market and sell directly to individuals, we initially focus on increasing brand awareness, followed by performance marketing targeted toward member enrollment.

Our marketing strategy in new markets is primarily centered on increasing overall brand awareness, familiarity, consideration and ultimately enrollment. To achieve these objectives, we showcase our model via direct mail, print, digital, out-of-home, broadcast, and social media advertising. We also develop thought leadership content such as

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whitepapers, eBooks, and blog posts and use public relations to secure earned media placements. Additionally, we participate in industry conferences, and may partner with media outlets, event venues, and local businesses to increase brand awareness.

As brand awareness increases in more established markets, we shift our efforts to performance marketing focused on both customer acquisition and engagement. Our performance marketing initiatives include customized task-based in-app messages and email communications to drive engagement among members, in addition to more targeted advertisements through direct mail, Google Search, YouTube and social media for member acquisition.

Enterprise Sales & Marketing

Our in-house enterprise sales force is organized by geography and customer size. To support our sales force, we segment market data to help with prospect qualification and leverage publicly available and trade organization material to focus on enterprise clients who we believe value health outcomes and medical cost reduction targets. The sales analytics team further supports our value to employers with population health data and medical cost assessment. Additionally, our client services team actively manages our customer accounts through in-depth reporting on a variety of metrics such as NPS, member activation, utilization, engagement, and value.

We also work with channel partners such as payroll and professional employer organizations to reach enterprise clients, including small and midsize businesses and early stage new businesses. Additionally, we partner with select regional and national benefits brokers and consultants to educate potential customers on our offerings.

After onboarding new enterprise accounts, we shift our focus to enrolling and engaging employees. These efforts include on-site visits to employers, enterprise email communications, and social media and other forms of performance marketing. In 2020, these efforts also increasingly included COVID-19 screening and testing, and flu vaccination campaigns.

Intellectual Property

We believe that our intellectual property rights are important to our business. We rely on a combination of trademarks, service marks, copyrights and trade secrets to protect our proprietary technology and other intellectual property. As of December 31, 2020, we exclusively own five registered trademarks in the United States, including One Medical, with five more registrations currently pending. In addition, we have registered domain names for websites that we use or may use in our business. As of December 31, 2020, we had no issued patents and no pending patent applications anywhere in the world, and therefore, we do not have patent protection for any of our proprietary technology, including our technology platform, mobile app or web portal.

We seek to control access to and distribution of our proprietary information, including our algorithms, source and object code, designs, and business processes, through security measures and contractual restrictions. We seek to limit access to our confidential and proprietary information to a “need to know” basis and enter into confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements with our employees, consultants, customers and vendors that may receive or otherwise have access to any confidential or proprietary information. We also obtain written invention assignment agreements from our employees, consultants, and vendors that assign to us all right, interest, and title to inventions and work product developed during their employment or service engagement with us. In the normal course of business, we provide our intellectual property to external parties through licensing or restricted use agreements. We have established a system of security measures to help protect our computer systems from security breaches and computer viruses. We have employed various technology and process-based methods, such as clustered and multi-layer firewalls, intrusion detection systems, vulnerability assessments, threat intelligence, content filtering, endpoint security (including anti-malware and detection response capabilities), email security mechanisms, and access control mechanisms. We also use encryption techniques for data at rest and in transit.

Government Regulation

The healthcare industry and the practice of medicine are governed by an extensive and complex framework of federal and state laws, which continue to evolve and change over time. The costs and resources necessary to comply with these laws are high. Our profitability depends in part upon our ability, and that of the One Medical PCs and their

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providers, to operate in compliance with applicable laws and to maintain all applicable licenses. A review of our operations by courts or regulatory authorities could result in determinations that could adversely affect our operations, or the healthcare regulatory environment could change in a way that restricts our operations.

Practice of Medicine

Corporate Practice of Medicine and Fee-Splitting

We contract with the One Medical PCs, who in turn employ or retain physicians and other medical providers to deliver professional clinical services to patients. We enter into ASAs with the One Medical PCs pursuant to which it provides them with a wide range of administrative services and receive payment from the One Medical PC. These administrative services arrangements are subject to state laws, including those in certain of the states where we operate, which prohibit the practice of medicine by, and/or the splitting of professional fees with, non-professional persons or entities such as general business corporations.

Corporate practice of medicine and fee-splitting prohibitions vary widely from state to state. In addition, such prohibitions are subject to broad powers of interpretation and enforcement by state regulators. Our failure to comply could lead to adverse action against us and/or our providers by courts or state agencies, civil or criminal penalties, loss of provider licenses, or the need to restructure our business model and/or physician relationships, any of which could harm our business.

Practice of Medicine and Provider Licensing

The practice of medicine is subject to various federal, state, and local laws and requirements, including, among other things, laws relating to the practice of medicine (including remote care), quality and adequacy of care, non-physician personnel, supervisory requirements, behavioral health, medical equipment, and the prescribing and dispensing of pharmaceuticals and controlled substances.

Telehealth Provider Licensing, Medical Practice, Certification and Related Laws and Guidelines

Providers who provide professional medical services to a patient via telehealth must, in most instances, hold a valid license to practice medicine in the state in which the patient is located, unless there are applicable exceptions. Federal and state laws also limit the ability of providers to prescribe pharmaceuticals and controlled substances via telehealth. We have established systems for ensuring that our affiliated providers are appropriately licensed under applicable state law and that their provision of telehealth to our members occurs in each instance in compliance with applicable rules governing telehealth. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could lead to adverse action against our providers, which could harm our business model and/or physician relationships and have a negative impact on our business.

Other Healthcare Laws

HIPAA, as amended by the HITECH Act, and their implementing regulations, includes several separate criminal penalties for making false or fraudulent claims to non-governmental payers. The healthcare fraud statute prohibits knowingly and recklessly executing a scheme or artifice to defraud any healthcare benefit program, which includes private payers. Violation of this statute is a felony and may result in fines, imprisonment, or exclusion from government healthcare programs. The false statements statute prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing, or covering up a material fact by any trick, scheme, or device, or making any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items, or services. Violation of this statute is a felony and may result in fines or imprisonment. This statute could be used by the government to assert criminal liability if a healthcare provider knowingly fails to refund an overpayment.

In addition, the Civil Monetary Penalties Law imposes civil administrative sanctions for, among other violations, (1) inappropriate billing of services to government healthcare programs, (2) employing or contracting with individuals or entities who are excluded from participation in government healthcare programs, and (3) offering or providing Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries with any remuneration, including full or partial waivers of co-payments and deductibles, that are likely to influence the beneficiary’s selection of a particular provider, practitioner, or supplier

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(subject to an exception for non-routine, unadvertised co-payment and deductible waivers based on individualized determinations of financial need or exhaustion of reasonable collection efforts).

State and Federal Health Information Privacy and Security Laws

We must comply with various federal and state laws related to the privacy and security of personally identifiable information, or PII, including health information. In particular, HIPAA establishes privacy and security standards that limit the use and disclosure of protected health information, or PHI, and requires the implementation of administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of PHI. The One Medical PCs are regulated as covered entities under HIPAA. HIPAA’s requirements are also directly applicable to the contractors, agents, and other business associates of covered entities that create, receive, maintain, or transmit PHI in connection with their provision of services to covered entities. We are a business associate of the One Medical PCs, health network partners and other covered entities when performing certain administrative services on their behalf.

We are also subject to the HIPAA breach notification rule, which requires covered entities to notify affected individuals of breaches of unsecured PHI. In addition, covered entities must notify the Secretary of Health and Human Services, or HHS, Office of Civil Rights, or OCR, and the local media if a breach affects more than 500 individuals. Breaches affecting fewer than 500 individuals must be reported to OCR on an annual basis. The HIPAA regulations also require business associates to notify the covered entity of breaches by the business associate.

Violations of HIPAA can result in civil and criminal penalties, including civil financial penalties ranging from $119 to $59,522 per violation (as of 2020, and subject to periodic adjustments for inflation).

Many states in which we operate have their own laws protecting the privacy and security of personal information, including health information. We must comply with such laws in the states where we do business in addition to our obligations under HIPAA. In some states, such as California, state privacy laws are even more protective than HIPAA. It may sometimes be necessary to modify our operations and procedures to comply with these more stringent state laws. State data privacy and security laws are subject to change, and we could be subject to financial penalties and sanctions if we fail to comply with these laws.

In addition to federal and state laws protecting the privacy and security of personal information, we may be subject to other types of federal and state privacy laws, including laws that prohibit unfair privacy and security practices and deceptive statements about privacy and security, along with laws that impose specific requirements on certain types of activities, such as data security and texting.

Federal and State Fraud and Abuse Laws

Federal Stark Law

We are subject to the federal physician self-referral law, commonly known as the Stark Law, which prohibits physicians from referring Medicare or Medicaid patients to an entity for the provision of certain “designated health services” if the referring physician or a member of the physician’s immediate family has a direct or indirect financial relationship (including an ownership interest or a compensation arrangement) with the entity, unless an exception applies. The Stark Law is a strict liability statute, which means intent to violate the law is not required. In addition, the government and some courts have taken the position that claims presented in violation of various fraud, waste, and abuse laws, including the Stark Law, can be considered a predicate legal violation to submission of a false claim under the federal False Claims Act (described below) on the grounds that a provider impliedly certifies compliance with all applicable laws and rules when submitting claims for reimbursement. Penalties for violating the Stark Law may include: denial of payment for services ordered in violation of the law, recoupments of monies paid for such services, civil penalties for each violation and three times the dollar value of each such service, and exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs. Violations of the Stark Law could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Federal Anti-Kickback Statute

We are also subject to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which, subject to certain exceptions known as “safe harbors,” prohibits the knowing and willful offer, payment, solicitation or receipt of any bribe, kickback, rebate or other remuneration, in cash or in kind, in return for, or to induce, the (1) the referral of a person covered by government healthcare programs, (2) the furnishing or arranging for the furnishing of items or services reimbursable under government healthcare programs, or (3) the purchasing, leasing, ordering, or arranging or recommending the purchasing, leasing, or ordering, of any item or service reimbursable under government healthcare programs. Federal courts have held that the Anti-Kickback Statute can be violated if just one purpose of a payment is to induce referrals. Actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it is not required, which makes it easier for the government to prove that a defendant had the state of mind required for a violation. In addition to a few statutory exceptions, the Human Services Office of Inspector General, or OIG, has promulgated safe harbor regulations that outline categories of activities that are deemed protected from prosecution under the Anti-Kickback Statute, provided all applicable criteria are met. The failure of a financial relationship to meet all of the applicable safe harbor criteria does not necessarily mean that the particular arrangement violates the Anti-Kickback Statute, but business arrangements that do not fully satisfy all elements of a safe harbor may result in increased scrutiny by OIG and other enforcement authorities. Violations of the Anti-Kickback Statute can result in exclusion from government healthcare programs as well as civil and criminal penalties, including fines of $50,000 per violation and three times the amount of the unlawful remuneration. Violations of the Anti-Kickback Statute could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

False Claims Act

The federal False Claims Act prohibits knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, false claims to government programs, such as Medicare or Medicaid. Some states have adopted similar fraud and false claims laws. Government agencies engage in significant civil and criminal enforcement efforts against healthcare companies under the False Claims Act and other civil and criminal statutes. False Claims Act investigations can be initiated not only by the government, but by private parties through qui tam (or whistleblower) lawsuits. Penalties for False Claims Act violations include fines ranging from $11,665 to $23,331 per false claim or statement (as of 2020, and subject to annual adjustments for inflation), plus up to three times the amount of damages sustained by the federal government. Violations of the False Claims Act violations can also result in exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs.

State Fraud, Waste and Abuse Laws

Several states in which we operate have also adopted similar fraud, waste, and abuse laws to those described above. The scope and content of these laws vary from state to state and are enforced by state courts and regulatory authorities. Some states’ fraud and abuse laws, known as “all-payer laws,” are not limited to government healthcare programs, but apply more broadly to items or services reimbursed by any payer, including commercial insurers. Liability under state fraud, waste, and abuse laws could result in fines, penalties, and restrictions on our ability to operate in those jurisdictions.

Our Health Network Partnerships

We have entered into strategic partnership arrangements with each of our health network partners under which we and the health network partner create a clinically integrated care delivery model that coordinates our network of affiliated primary care practices with the health network partner’s healthcare system to better deliver coordinated care for members, improve operational efficiencies, and deliver value to employers and other players.

Fee Structure

Under most of the strategic partnership arrangements, the health network partners contract with one or more of the One Medical PCs for professional clinical services and contract with 1Life for management, operational and administrative services, including billing and collection services and designing and managing the day-to-day administration of the business aspects of the primary care practices. Under these arrangements, when our medical offices provide professional clinical services to covered members, we, as administrator, perform billing and collection

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services on behalf of the health network, and the health network receives the fees for the services provided, including those paid by members’ insurance plans. In return for these professional clinical, management, operational and administrative services, we receive fees from these health network partners on a PMPM basis, which may be based on various factors such as visit rates, other primary care relationships our health network partners may have, and the rates these health network partners receive from payers. In lieu of PMPM fees, certain of our clinically integrated health network partners extend their health insurance contracts to us. Under these arrangements, we bill for and receive fees directly for professional clinical services provided to members.

Term and Termination

The term of each strategic partnership arrangement is typically five or more years and automatically renews for additional two- to five-year terms unless either we or the health network partners decide not to renew. We or the health network partners generally may terminate a strategic partnership arrangement with 90 days’ notice upon certain events such as uncured breach, mutual consent, or a change in law that conflicts with the applicable arrangement. The strategic partnership arrangements generally may be terminated immediately upon certain events such as bankruptcy, exclusion and in some cases, business combinations involving us and a specified competing health network. Certain health network partners may also terminate upon their determination that we no longer meet their criteria for clinical partnership or the values or mission of the health network partner.

Exclusivity and Non-Solicitation

Under the terms of strategic partnership arrangements, we typically cannot enter into a similar arrangement with           direct competitors to the health network partner within the territory covered by the strategic partnership arrangement. Additionally, the terms of some of the strategic partnership arrangements include a mutual non-solicitation clause, prohibiting us and our health network partners from soliciting each other’s employees during the term of the arrangement and for one year following its expiration, subject to certain customary recruiting practices.

Clinic Commitments and Development Fees

Pursuant to each strategic partnership arrangement, we typically commit to open an initial number of clinics, ranging from low single digits to mid-teen double digits depending on the area covered, within the initial term. Our health network partners pay us certain development fees for the opening of each clinic.

 

Our Enterprise Client Agreements

We enter into contractual arrangements with our enterprise clients pursuant to which our clients purchase memberships from us for their employees and, in certain circumstances, we provide on-site and nearsite clinics and health services. The transaction price for memberships under most of these contracts is determined on a per employee per month basis, based on the number of employees eligible for membership established at the beginning of each contract period. Our contracts with enterprise clients typically have one- to three-year terms.

Google Services Agreement

In August 2017, we entered into an inbound services agreement, or the ISA, with Google Inc. and certain of the One Medical PCs. For 2019 and 2020, Google accounted for 10% of our net revenue. Under the ISA, we and Google enter into statements of work, or SOWs. As part of one or more of the SOW’s, Google sponsors memberships for their employees and dependents in certain markets in exchange for payment of annual fees. We also provide on-site clinics and health services for certain Google office locations under one or more SOWs. Under the ISA, Google is not obligated to enter into any SOWs with us, and we are not obligated to provide any services to Google except as agreed in the SOWs. Any party may terminate the ISA or any SOW following an uncured material breach, or suspend or terminate any SOW if applicable law prohibits performance under the SOW.

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Human Capital Resources

Employee Well-Being and Culture

 

We recognize that to be successful in our mission to transform healthcare, we need to take care of our teams as much as we take care of the members we serve. We reinforce this through our culture and team-based approach to longitudinal care as well as our salaried provider model, which eliminates the volume-based, fee-for-service compensation model commonly seen in our industry that could drive provider burnout. We also offer flexible work arrangements and opportunities to practice in office or virtually. We believe this results in a better quality of life and work-life balance. Our commitment to a team-based, collaborative environment and the values and benefits we provide to employees contributed to our recognition as a Great Place to Work in 2019. We were also named by Forbes and Statista as one of America’s Best Midsize Employers of 2021.

 

We believe our culture embodies five distinct qualities which we refer to as our DNA:

 

Human-Centered. We stay humble and empathetic, putting people at the heart of everything we build and every decision we make.

 

Team-Based. We communicate effectively, respect our teammates, and make the difficult tradeoffs that foster the success of the organization.

 

Intellectually Curious. We know we don't know everything; we're always eager to learn, and we're never afraid to question the status quo.

 

Unbounded-Thinking. By staying open minded, creative, and positive, we aim to push beyond constraints that have stymied those before us.

 

Driven to Excel. In our quest to be the best Primary Care group in the country, we focus on getting things done and pay attention to the little details that matter.

 

Training and Development

 

We believe in ensuring that all team members have access to tools to help them grow their careers and have focused our training and development on two primary areas: professional/career and leader development. We have invested in an array of internally generated and externally sourced learning resources, including a range of in-person, virtual and self-directed learning opportunities for our team members to help them develop the skills and competencies to further their career at One Medical.

 

Diversity and Inclusion

 

We also recognize the importance of having a diverse and inclusive environment as part of our mission of transforming healthcare. We maintain a Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Justice Committee to encourage best practices to foster diversity, equity, inclusion and social justice in the workplace. To help support career development for our Black and Latinx team members, we have implemented a mentorship programs and have also implemented training programs to help advance our culture of diversity, inclusion, equity and justice. Recently, we have also established a Health Equity Domain Working Group that evaluates policies and best practices on providing care in a manner that respects the diversity of our patients and the cultural factors that can affect their health.

As of December 31, 2020, across 1Life and the One Medical PCs, we had 1,957 full-time employees. None of our employees are represented by labor unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good and we have not experienced any work stoppages due to labor disagreements.

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Corporate and Available Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware in July 2002 under the name 1Life Healthcare, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at One Embarcadero Center, Suite 1900, San Francisco, California 94111. Our telephone number is (415) 814-0927. 

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge on or through our website, http://www.one medical.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. The SEC’s website, http://www.sec.gov, contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

 

Investors and others should note that we announce material financial and other information using our investor relations website, press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. We also post supplemental materials on the “Events and Presentations” section of our investor relations website at investor.onemedical.com. Except as specifically noted herein, information contained on or accessible through our website is not incorporated into, and does not form a part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

We also use our Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn accounts as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. The information we post through these social media channels may be deemed material. Accordingly, investors should monitor these accounts, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. This list may be updated from time to time. The information we post through these channels is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These channels may be updated from time to time on our investor relations website.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should consider and read carefully all of the risks and uncertainties described below, as well as other information included in this Annual Report, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report, before making an investment decision. If any of the following risks actually occur, it could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. Unless otherwise indicated, references to our business being harmed in these risk factors will include harm to our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, net revenue and future prospects. In such event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

Risk Factor Summary

Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties which may prevent us from achieving our business and strategic objectives or may adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. These risks include but are not limited to the following:

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry

 

the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;

 

our dependence on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties;

 

our ability to comply with applicable healthcare laws and government regulations and the impact of regulatory or governmental investigations on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations;

 

the impact of a decline in the prevalence of private health insurance coverage;

 

our ability to cost-effectively develop widespread brand awareness and to maintain our reputation and market acceptance for our healthcare services;

 

our history of losses and uncertainty about our future profitability;

 

our ability to maintain and expand member utilization of our services;

 

the impact of reductions in reimbursement rates paid by third-party payers or federal or state healthcare programs or other policies or initiatives implemented by third-party payers or government payers;

 

our ability to compete effectively in the markets in which we participate;

 

our ability to grow at the rates we historically have achieved;

 

our rapid growth and our ability to effectively manage our growth, including to implement and scale improvements to our internal systems, processes and controls;

 

our ability to attract and retain quality primary care providers to support our services;

 

our ability to achieve economies of scale in our enterprise client and health network partner relationships;

 

the impact of current or future litigation against us, including medical liability claims and class actions

 

the availability of additional debt or capital financings on acceptable terms or at all;

 

fluctuations in our quarterly results and our ability to meet the expectations of securities analysts and investors;

 

the loss of key members of our senior management team and our ability to attract and retain executive officers, employees, providers and medical support personnel;

 

our ability to successfully integrate any acquired businesses or to realize the anticipated benefits from such acquisitions; and

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the impact of natural and man-made disasters and similar events on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Government Regulation

 

the impact of healthcare reform legislation and changes in the healthcare industry and healthcare spending;

 

the impact of governmental or regulatory scrutiny of or challenge to our arrangements with health networks;

 

our dependence on our relationships with the One Medical PCs, which are affiliated professional entities that we do not own, to provide healthcare services;

 

our ability to comply with rules related to billing and related documentation for healthcare services; and

 

our ability to comply with regulations governing the use and disclosure of PII, including PHI.

Risks Related to Information Technology

 

our reliance on internet infrastructure, bandwidth providers, other third parties and our own systems to provide a proprietary services platform to our members and providers;

 

our reliance on third-party vendors to host and maintain our technology platform;

 

any breaches of our systems or those of our vendors or unauthorized access to employee, contractor, member, client or partner data;

 

our ability to maintain and enhance our proprietary technology platform; and

 

our ability to optimize our technology solutions for members, integrate our systems with health network partners or resolve technical issues in a timely manner.

Risks Related to Taxation

 

the risk of potentially adverse tax consequences on our operations and structure.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

 

our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights.

Risks Related Ownership of Our Common Stock

 

the impact of volatility in the trading price of our common stock;

 

our ability to maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting; and

 

the impact of substantial future sales of our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Outstanding Notes

 

the requirement for us to maintain a significant amount of cash to service our debt; and

 

our ability to raise the funds necessary for cash settlements of any conversions of the 2025 Notes or to repurchase the 2025 Notes for cash. 

 

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Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted, and may continue to significantly impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth.

 

The global COVID-19 pandemic and measures introduced by local, state and federal governments to contain the virus and mitigate its public health effects have significantly impacted and may continue to significantly impact our business, our industry and the global economy.  

 

During the six months ended June 30, 2020, COVID-19 negatively impacted our business as community self-isolation practices and shelter-in-place requirements, as well as the perceived need by individuals to continue such practices to avoid infection, among other factors, reduced our total billable visit volumes, negatively affecting our net revenue. Subsequently, governmental authorities in certain of our markets, including California, began re-opening and lifting or relaxing shelter-in-place and quarantine measures but reverted such restrictions in the face of increases in new COVID-19 cases. Continued or new shelter-in-place, quarantine, executive order or related measures or practices to combat the spread of COVID-19 could reduce our total billable volumes and harm our results of operations, business and financial condition.  In addition, in markets where our health network partners receive visit revenue in return for paying us a fixed price PMPM, a decrease in billable utilization also reduces the visit revenue received by those health network partners. These and other related factors such as supply, resource and capital constraints related to the treatment of COVID-19 patients, could harm the business, results of operations and financial condition of our health network partners and negatively impact our health network partners’ ability or willingness to pay us.  Given our dependence on our health network partners for a substantial portion of our net revenue, our own business, financial condition and results of operations may be negatively impacted as a result. In addition, sustained remote work policies, quarantines, shelter-in-place requirements and similar government orders have continued to result in temporary closures of certain offices and delays in openings of our new medical offices, and may result in delays in entry into new markets and expansion in existing markets, which may harm our business and growth. 

 

While our total billable volumes and aggregate reimbursement have recently exceeded pre-COVID-19 levels, driven partially by routine and preventative care deferred previously due to COVID-19, by increased public awareness of the importance of flu vaccinations and by COVID-19 testing, we cannot be certain whether such volumes will be sustained. Average reimbursement for these billable services has also remained below pre-COVID-19 levels, driven partially by the higher proportional amount of lower-revenue generating services and products, including billable remote visits, COVID-19 testing, and COVID-19 vaccinations, which may not be reimbursable or have lower average reimbursements relative to traditional in-office visits. We cannot assure you that our total billable volumes will continue to exceed pre-COVID-19 levels, and that the average reimbursement for billable services will return to pre-COVID-19 levels. Further, while membership has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, such increased membership levels may not be sustained, and our consumer membership and enterprise customer retention may fall following the pandemic.  Any of these factors and outcomes could harm our business, financial conditions, results of operations and growth.

 

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, state and federal regulators have promulgated a variety of different emergency orders, laws, and regulations intended to permit health care providers to provide care to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, including through the relaxation of licensure requirements and privacy restrictions for telehealth and various waivers intended to limit liability for providers treating patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Federal, state and local authorities have also issued orders, laws and regulations related to the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. We have undertaken many new programs to rapidly respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, including telehealth visits, testing and vaccine administration arrangements, in reliance on these orders, laws and regulations. We cannot assure you that such orders, laws and regulations will continue to apply or that regulators or other governmental entities will agree with our interpretations of these orders laws and regulations. In March 2021, we received (i) requests for information and documents from the United States House Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus Crisis and (ii) a request for information from the California Attorney General and the Alameda County District Attorney’s Office relating to our provision of COVID-19 vaccinations, or, collectively, the Vaccine Inquiries. We have also received inquiries from state and local public health departments regarding our vaccine administration practices. We are cooperating with these requests and are unable to predict the outcome or timeline of these matters or if any additional requests, inquiries, investigations or other government actions may arise relating to such circumstances. The Vaccine Inquiries, together with any additional inquiries, regulatory or governmental

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investigations or other disputes that result from our provision of COVID-19 vaccinations or any other arrangements entered into in reliance on these orders, laws and regulations, or the failure of various waivers for limitations of liability or other provisions under such orders, laws and regulations to apply to us could divert resources and harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.  In addition, the reversal of such orders, laws or regulations, or the resumption of pre-COVID-19 licensure and other requirements and restrictions, may also require us to divert resources or revamp certain of our new programs to ensure compliance, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. 

 

As part of our rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented new services and products as described above based on continuously evolving regulatory standards. Some of these new services and products could result in inaccurate results and our medical offices and virtual care teams could also become overburdened with inquiries and requests, which may result in longer phone wait times or other service delivery delays leading to member or enterprise client dissatisfaction. In order to provide testing and vaccination services in certain markets and to comply with certain local requirements, we opened temporary testing facilities and partnered with local departments of public health and various other enterprises and organizations to set up testing and vaccination sites. To continue providing such services, we will be required to comply with federal, state and local rules, mandates and guidelines, which are subject to rapid change and may vary across jurisdictions. Failure to remain in compliance, or even the perception of non-compliance, may curtail or result in restrictions on our ability to provide any such services, result in time-consuming and potentially costly inquiries, further investigations or disputes, and damage to our reputation, any of which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.  Further, we may be required in the future to make further alterations to our operations to address the changing needs of our members during the pandemic, which could increase our costs and divert resources from managing our business and growth.  

  

The pandemic has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant disruption of global financial markets, potentially reducing our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity. The COVID-19 pandemic may also continue to impact our operations, and net revenues, expenses, collectability of accounts receivables and other money owed, capital expenditures, liquidity, and overall financial condition by disrupting or delaying delivery of materials and products in the supply chain for our offices, by causing staffing shortages, by increasing our risk for workers’ compensation claims, by increasing capital expenditures due to the need to buy incremental hardware, or by reducing the liquidity and value of our short-term marketable securities.

Our business model and future growth are substantially dependent on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.

We will continue to substantially depend on our relationships with third parties, including health network partners, enterprise clients and distribution partners to grow our business. In particular, our growth depends on maintaining existing, and developing new, strategic affiliations with health network partners. We also rely on a number of partners such as benefits enrollment platforms, professional employment organizations, consultants and other distribution partners in order to sell our solutions and services and enroll members onto our platform.

Our agreements with our enterprise clients often provide for fees based on the number of members that are covered by such clients’ programs each month, known as capitation arrangements. Certain of our enterprise clients and partners also pay us a fixed fee per year regardless of the number of registered members. The number of individuals who register as members through our enterprise clients is often affected by factors outside of our control, such as plan endorsement by the employer, member outreach and retention initiatives. Enterprise clients may also prohibit us from engaging in direct outreach with employees as potential members, or we may be unsuccessful in spreading brand awareness among employees who perceive competitors as offering better solutions and services, which would decrease growth in membership and reduce our net revenue. Increasing rates of unemployment may also result in loss of members at our enterprise clients, and economic recessions or slowdowns can result in our enterprise clients terminating their employee sponsorship arrangements with us. In addition, during periods of economic slowdown, enterprise clients may face less competition for new hires or may not need to hire as many employees and as a result, they may not need to sponsor memberships with us as a means to attract new hires. Even if the markets in which our enterprise clients operate experience growth, it is possible that a such client’s program membership could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all. If the number of members covered by one or more of such clients’ programs were to be reduced, including due to benefits reductions or layoffs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, it would lead

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to a reduction of membership fees, a decrease in our patient service revenue and partnership revenue, and may also result in the enterprise client electing not to renew our contract for another year. In addition, the growth forecasts of our clients are subject to significant uncertainty, including after the COVID-19 pandemic and any prolonged ensuing economic recession, and are based on assumptions and estimates that may prove to be inaccurate. Further, historical activation rates within a given enterprise client may not be indicative of future membership levels at that enterprise client or activation rates of similarly situated enterprise clients. High activation rates (i.e., the percentage of individuals eligible for membership who are enrolled as members) do not necessarily result in increased net patient service revenue and do not typically result in increased membership revenue.

Health network partnerships also comprise a significant portion of our revenue. Under these contracts, we closely collaborate with a health network on certain strategic initiatives such as the expansion of practice sites in a particular jurisdiction or service area, and clinical and digital integration between our primary care and their specialty care services. Our contracts with the health network partners are typically bespoke, with varying terms across health network partners. However, each contract generally provides for fees on a PMPM basis or a fee-for-service basis. Under contracts providing for PMPM fees, when our medical offices provide professional clinical services to covered members, we, as administrator, perform billing and collection services on behalf of the health network, and the health network receives the fees for services provided, including those paid by members’ insurance plans. If we do not adequately satisfy the objectives of our partners or perform against contractual obligations, we may lose revenue under the applicable health network partner contract and the health network partner may become dissatisfied with the terms or our performance under the contract, which could result in its early termination or amendment, if permitted, and as a result, harm to our business and results of operations, including a reduction in net revenue. Even regardless of our performance under the contracts, we cannot guarantee that our health network partners will continue to be satisfied with the terms or circumstances under existing contracts, particularly given constraints and challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. We have experienced contractual disputes and renegotiations with health network partners in the past and may experience additional disputes and renegotiations in the future. Our contracts with health network partners are often exclusive in the applicable jurisdiction; as a result, in new potential markets, should we pursue a health network partnership, we would need to successfully contract with a sufficiently competitively viable health network partner, as we may not be able to terminate any such contract for several years without penalty or be able to partner with other health network partners in the same market due to competitive pressures or lack of counterparties. If we are unable to successfully continue our strategic relationships with our health network partners on terms favorable to us or at all, or if we do not successfully contract with health network partners in new jurisdictions, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

Most of our enterprise clients and health network partners have no obligation to renew their agreements with us after the initial term expires. In addition, our health network partners and enterprise clients may negotiate terms less advantageous to us upon renewal, which may reduce our revenue from these entities. If our health network partners or enterprise clients fail to renew their contracts, renew their contracts upon less favorable terms or at lower fee levels or fail to purchase new solutions and services from us, our revenue may decline or our future revenue growth may be constrained. In addition, our health network partner and enterprise client contracts generally allow partners to terminate such agreements for cause. If a partner or customer terminates its contract early and revenue and cash flows expected from a partner or enterprise client are not realized in the time period expected or not realized at all, our business could be harmed.

Identifying partners, and negotiating and documenting relationships with them, requires significant time and resources. Our competitors may be more effective in executing such relationships and performing against them. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our net revenue could be impaired and our results of operations may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in increased member use of our solutions and services or increased net revenue.

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We conduct business in a heavily regulated industry, and any failure to comply with applicable healthcare laws and government regulations, could result in financial penalties, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs and adverse publicity, or could require us to make significant operational changes, any of which could harm our business.

The U.S. healthcare industry is heavily regulated and closely scrutinized by federal, state and local authorities. Comprehensive statutes and regulations govern the manner in which we provide and bill for services and collect reimbursement from governmental programs and private payers, our contractual relationships with our providers, vendors, health network partners and customers, our marketing activities and other aspects of our operations. Of particular importance are:

 

state laws that prohibit general business corporations, such as us, from practicing medicine, controlling physicians’ medical decisions or engaging in practices such as splitting fees with physicians;

 

federal and state laws pertaining to non-physician practitioners, such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants, including requirements for physician supervision of such practitioners and licensure and reimbursement-related requirements;

 

the federal physician self-referral law, commonly referred to as the Stark Law, which, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits physicians from referring Medicare or Medicaid patients to an entity for the provision of certain “designated health services” if the physician or a member of the physician’s immediate family has a direct or indirect financial relationship (including an ownership interest or a compensation arrangement) with the entity;

 

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which, subject to certain exceptions known as “safe harbors,” prohibits the knowing and willful offer, payment, solicitation or receipt of any bribe, kickback, rebate or other remuneration, in cash or in kind, in return for the referral of an individual for, or the lease, purchase, order or recommendation of, items or services covered, in whole or in part, by government healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid;

 

the federal False Claims Act, which imposes civil and criminal liability on individuals or entities that knowingly or recklessly submit false or fraudulent claims to Medicare, Medicaid, and other government-funded programs or make or cause to be made false statements in order to have a claim paid;

 

a provision of the Social Security Act that imposes criminal penalties on healthcare providers who fail to disclose or refund known overpayments;

 

the criminal healthcare fraud provisions of the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and their implementing regulations, or collectively, HIPAA, and related rules that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing a scheme or artifice to defraud any healthcare benefit program or falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any material false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services;

 

the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which prohibits the offering or giving of remuneration to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries that is likely to influence the beneficiary’s selection of a particular provider or supplier;

 

federal and state laws that prohibit providers from billing and receiving payment from Medicare and Medicaid for services unless the services are medically necessary, adequately and accurately documented, and billed using codes that accurately reflect the type and level of services rendered;

 

federal and state laws and policies related to healthcare providers’ licensure, certification, accreditation, Medicare and Medicaid program enrollment and reassignment of benefits;

 

federal and state laws and policies related to the prescribing and dispensing of pharmaceuticals and controlled substances;

 

state laws related to the advertising and marketing of services by healthcare providers;

 

federal and state laws related to confidentiality, privacy and security of personal information, including medical information and records, that limit the manner in which we may use and disclose that information, impose obligations to safeguard such information and require that we notify third parties in the event of a breach;

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federal laws that impose civil administrative sanctions for, among other violations, inappropriate billing of services to government healthcare programs or employing or contracting with individuals who are excluded from participation in government healthcare programs;

 

laws and regulations limiting the use of funds in health savings accounts for individuals with high deductible health plans;

 

state laws pertaining to anti-kickback, fee splitting, self-referral and false claims, some of which are not limited to relationships involving government-funded programs; and

 

state laws governing healthcare entities that bear financial risk.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. Achieving and sustaining compliance with these laws requires us to implement controls across our entire organization and it may prove costly and challenging to monitor and enforce compliance. In particular, given the prevalence of laws, rules and regulations restricting the corporate practice of medicine in certain of the states that we operate, we are prohibited from interfering with or inappropriately influencing providers’ professional judgment and are reliant on the providers and other healthcare professionals at the One Medical PCs to operate in compliance with applicable laws related to the practice of medicine and the provision of healthcare services. The risk of our being found in violation of healthcare laws and regulations is increased by the fact that many of them have not been fully interpreted by regulatory authorities or the courts, and their provisions are sometimes complex and open to a variety of interpretations. Failure to comply with these laws and other laws can result in civil and criminal penalties such as fines, damages, recoupments of overpayments, imprisonment, loss of enrollment status and exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs.

 

To enforce compliance with the federal laws, the U.S. Department of Justice and the Office of Inspector General for the HHS regularly scrutinize healthcare providers, which has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry. The One Medical PCs’ operation of medical practices is also subject to various state laws enforced by state regulators, including state attorneys general, boards of professional licensure and departments of health. A review of our business by judicial, law enforcement, regulatory or accreditation authorities could result in challenges or actions against us that could harm our business and operations. Responding to and managing government investigations can be time- and resource-consuming, divert management’s attention from the business and generate adverse publicity. Any action against us for violation of these laws or regulations, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses, divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business and result in adverse publicity. Moreover, if one of our health system partners or another third party fails to comply with applicable laws and becomes the target of a government investigation, government authorities could require our cooperation in the investigation, which could cause us to incur additional legal expenses and result in adverse publicity.

In addition, because of the potential for large monetary exposure under the federal False Claims Act, which provides for treble damages and penalties of $11,665 to $23,331 per false claim or statement (as of 2020, and subject to annual adjustments for inflation), healthcare providers often resolve allegations without admissions of liability for significant amounts to avoid the uncertainty of treble damages that may be awarded in litigation proceedings. Such settlements often contain additional compliance and reporting requirements as part of a consent decree, settlement agreement or corporate integrity agreement. Given the significant size of actual and potential settlements, it is expected that the government will continue to devote substantial resources to investigating healthcare providers’ compliance with the healthcare reimbursement rules and fraud and abuse laws.

Further, our ability to provide our full range of services in each state is dependent upon a state’s treatment of telehealth and emerging technologies (such as digital health services), which are subject to changing political, regulatory and other influences. Many states have laws that limit or restrict the practice of telehealth, such as laws that require a provider to be licensed and/or physically located in the same state where the patient is located. Failure to comply with these laws could result in denials of reimbursement for our services (to the extent such services are billed), recoupments of prior payments, professional discipline for our providers or civil or criminal penalties. 

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The laws, regulations and standards governing the provision of healthcare services may change significantly in the future and may harm our business and operations. For example, we have had to adapt our business as a result of the CARES Act and other emergency orders, laws and regulations enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. While some of these changes have allowed us to rapidly respond to the COVID-19 pandemic including via expanded telehealth visits and testing arrangements, they have also required us to adapt to new offerings, processes and procedures. We cannot assure you that such emergency orders, laws and regulations will continue to apply or that regulators or other governmental entities will agree with our interpretation of these arrangements under applicable law. The Vaccine Inquiries or any other regulatory or governmental investigations or other disputes as a result of these arrangements, or the failure of various waivers for limitations of liability or other provisions under such emergency orders, laws and regulations to apply to us could divert resources and harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

If the prevalence of private health insurance coverage declines, including due to a decline in the prevalence of employer-sponsored health care, our revenue may be reduced.

Private third-party payers, including health maintenance organizations, or HMOs, preferred provider organizations and other managed care plans, as well as medical groups and independent practice associations that contract with HMOs, typically reimburse healthcare providers at a higher rate than Medicare or other government healthcare programs. These payers utilize plan structures to encourage or require the use of in-network providers. The One Medical PCs enter into contracts with certain of these payers either directly, or indirectly through our health network partners, which allow them to participate in the payers’ respective networks and set forth reimbursement rates for services rendered thereunder. As a result, our ability to maintain or increase patient volumes covered by private third-party payers and to maintain and obtain favorable contracts with private third-party payers significantly affects our revenue and operating results.

We currently derive a large portion of our revenue from members acquired under contracts with enterprise clients that purchase health care for their employees (either via insurance or self-funded benefit plans). A large part of the demand for our solutions and services among enterprise clients depends on the need of these employers to manage the costs of healthcare services that they pay on behalf of their employees. While the percentage of employers who are self-insured has been increasing over the past decade, this trend may not continue. Over time, employees may also increasingly decide to obtain their own insurance through state-sponsored insurance marketplaces rather than through their employers. While such employees may remain members, our reimbursement from providing services to these members would likely decrease. Employees who obtain their own insurance may also cancel their memberships, which may decrease the fees we receive under our contracts with health network partners as fewer members engage in their healthcare networks. If any of these trends accelerate, there is no guarantee that we would be able to compensate for the loss in revenue derived from enterprise clients and health network partners by increasing retail member acquisition. A decline in overall prevalence of private health insurance coverage, including due to the passage of healthcare reform proposals such as “Medicare for All,” could further harm our revenue, particularly if accompanied by a reduction in employer-sponsored health insurance. In addition, health network partners who rely on patient use of their networks, particularly specialty care, through our contracts with them, may become dissatisfied with the terms under the applicable contract and seek to amend or terminate, or elect not to renew, these contracts. In these cases, our business and results of operations would be harmed.

If we fail to cost-effectively develop widespread brand awareness and maintain our reputation, or if we fail to achieve and maintain market acceptance for our healthcare services, our business could suffer.

We believe that developing and maintaining widespread awareness of our brand and maintaining our reputation for providing access to high quality and efficient health care in a cost-effective manner is critical to attracting new members and enterprise clients and maintaining existing members. Our business and revenue are heavily reliant on growing and maintaining our membership base. We have historically derived a significant portion of net revenue from patient visits at the One Medical PCs. In addition, we have a growing number of strategic relationships with health systems and health plans, or collectively, health networks. Market acceptance of our solutions and services and member acquisition depends on educating people, as well as enterprise clients and health networks, as to the distinct features, ease-of-use, positive lifestyle impact, cost savings, quality, and other perceived benefits of our solutions and services as compared to alternative avenues for health care. In particular, market acceptance is highly dependent on our ability to sufficiently saturate a particular geographic area with medical offices to provide services to local

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members, which may be customized based on the needs and preferences of the local market and the healthcare preferences of the members in that market. Further, our marketing efforts depend significantly on word of mouth and informal member referrals among the employees of our enterprise clients to spread awareness of our solutions and services. If we are not successful in demonstrating to existing and potential members and enterprise clients the benefits of our solutions and services, are not able to sufficiently saturate a market with medical offices in convenient locations, or are not able to achieve the support of enterprise clients, health networks, healthcare providers and insurance carriers for our solutions and services, we could experience lower than expected sales of new memberships and a higher rate of existing membership termination, including termination of membership purchases by enterprise clients. Further, the loss or dissatisfaction of a significant contingent of our members, adverse media reports or negative feedback about our solutions and services may substantially harm our brand and reputation, inhibit widespread adoption of our solutions and services, reduce our revenue from enterprise clients and health networks, and impair our ability to attract new members and maintain existing members.

Our brand promotion activities may not generate awareness or increase revenue and, even if they do, any increase in revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract or retain members, health networks and enterprise clients necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts or to achieve the widespread brand awareness that is critical for broad adoption of our solutions and services. Even if we are successful in our brand promotion activities and deliver high quality and efficient service through the One Medical PCs, we cannot guarantee the quality and efficiency of healthcare service, particularly specialty healthcare, from our health network partners, over which we have no control. Many of our health network partners are large institutions with significant operations across a wide network of patients and may be unable to provide consistent levels of service to our members. Patients who experience poor quality healthcare provision from such partners may impute such dissatisfaction to our solutions and services, which could negatively impact member retention and acquisition, reduce our revenue and harm our business.

Our solutions and services may also be perceived by our members or enterprise clients to be more complicated or less effective than traditional approaches, and people may be unwilling to deviate from traditional or competing healthcare access options. Accordingly, healthcare providers may not recommend our solution or services until there is sufficient evidence to convince them to alter their current approach. Moreover, enterprise clients may be unwilling to market our solutions and services, or may prohibit us from marketing our solutions and services, to their employees. Any such resistance to adoption of our solutions and services, or impediment to our ability to market our solutions and services, may harm our business and results of operations.

We have a history of losses, which we expect to continue, and we may never achieve or sustain profitability.

 

We have incurred significant losses in each period since our inception. We incurred net losses of $53.7 million and $89.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $369.8 million. Our net losses and accumulated deficit reflect the substantial investments we made to acquire new health network partners and members, build our proprietary network of healthcare providers and develop our technology platform. We intend to continue scaling our business to increase our customer, member and provider bases, broaden the scope of our partnerships and expand our applications of technology through which members can access our services. Accordingly, we anticipate that our cost of care and other operating expenses will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses. We cannot assure you that we will achieve profitability in the future or that, if we do become profitable, we will be able to sustain or increase profitability. Our prior net losses, combined with our expected future net losses, have had and will continue to have a negative impact on our total (deficit) equity and working capital. As a result of these factors, we may need to raise additional capital through debt or equity financings in order to fund our operations, and such capital may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all.

Our net revenue depends in part on the number of members enrolled or patient visits, and a decrease in member utilization of our services could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Historically, we have relied on patient visits at the One Medical PCs for a substantial portion of our net revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, net patient service revenue accounted for 53% and 39%

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of our net revenue, respectively. As we develop additional digital health solutions through our mobile platform and continue providing and expanding availability of remote visits, we cannot guarantee that our members will consistently make in-office visits in addition to using our digital health solutions, particularly after the COVID-19 pandemic and as related shelter-in-place and quarantine measures and orders are relaxed or lifted. Further, it may be difficult for us to accurately forecast future patient in-office visits over time, which may vary across geographies and depend on patient demographics within a given market. In part due to the reduction of in-office visits observed due to COVID-19, we have introduced billable remote visits. We cannot predict with any certainty the number of remote billable services and their impact on our in-office visits. As remote billable services on average generate lower reimbursement than in-office visits, this may impact our operations and financial results. In addition, we will continue to rely on our reputation and recommendations from members and key enterprise clients to promote our solutions and services to potential new members. A substantial portion of our members hold subscriptions through their respective employers with which we have membership arrangements. The loss of any of our key enterprise clients, or a failure of some of them to renew or expand their arrangements with us, could have a significant impact on the growth rate of our revenue. If we are unable to attract and retain sufficient members in any given market, we may have reduced visits, which could harm our results of operations, reduce our revenue and harm our business.

In addition, under certain of our contracts with enterprise clients, we base our fees on the number of individuals to whom our clients provide benefits. Under certain of our health network partner agreements, we also collect fees from members who receive healthcare services within the health network partner’s network. Many factors, most of which we do not control, may lead to a decrease in the number of individuals covered by our enterprise clients, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

changes in the nature or operations of our enterprise clients or the failure of our enterprise clients to adopt or maintain effective business practices;

 

changes of control of our enterprise clients;

 

reduced demand in particular geographies;

 

shifts away from employer-sponsored health plans toward employee self-insurance;

 

shifting regulatory climate and new or changing government regulations; and

 

increased competition or other changes in the benefits marketplace.

If the number of members covered by our enterprise clients and health network partners decreases, our revenue will likely decrease.

If reimbursement rates paid by third-party payers are reduced or if third-party payers otherwise restrain our ability to obtain or provide services to members, our business could be harmed.

Private third-party payers pay for the services that we provide to many of our members. We estimate that as of December 31, 2020, over 95% of our members were commercially insured. If any commercial third-party payers reduce their reimbursement rates or elect not to cover some or all of our services, our business may be harmed.

Private third-party payers often use plan structures, such as narrow networks or tiered networks, to encourage or require members to use in-network providers. In-network providers typically provide services through private third-party payers for a negotiated lower rate or other less favorable terms. Private third-party payers generally attempt to limit use of out-of-network providers by requiring members to pay higher copayment and/or deductible amounts for out-of-network care. Additionally, private third-party payers have become increasingly aggressive in attempting to minimize the use of out-of-network providers by disregarding the assignment of payment from members to out-of-network providers (i.e., sending payments directly to members instead of to out-of-network providers), capping out-of-network benefits payable to members, waiving out-of-pocket payment amounts and initiating litigation against out-of-network providers for interference with contractual relationships, insurance fraud and violation of state licensing and consumer protection laws. If we become out of network for insurers, our business could be harmed and our patient service revenue could be reduced because members could stop using our services.

 

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If reimbursement rates paid by federal or state healthcare programs are reduced or if government payers otherwise restrain our ability to obtain or provide services to members, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be harmed.

 

A portion of our revenue comes from government healthcare programs, principally Medicare. Payments from federal and state government programs are subject to statutory and regulatory changes, administrative rulings, interpretations and determinations, requirements for utilization review and federal and state funding restrictions, each of which could increase or decrease program payments, as well as affect the cost of providing service to patients and the timing of payments to the One Medical PCs. We are unable to predict the effect of recent and future policy changes on our operations. In addition, the uncertainty and fiscal pressures placed upon federal and state governments as a result of, among other things, deterioration in general economic conditions and the funding requirements from the federal healthcare reform legislation, may affect the availability of taxpayer funds for Medicare programs. Changes in government healthcare programs may reduce the reimbursement we receive and could adversely impact our business and results of operations.

We operate in a competitive industry, and if we are not able to compete effectively our business would be harmed.

The market for healthcare solutions and services is highly fragmented and intensely competitive, with direct and indirect competitors offering varying levels of impact to key stakeholders such as consumers, employers, providers, and health networks. Our competitive success is contingent on our ability to simultaneously address the needs of key stakeholders efficiently while delivering superior outcomes at scale compared with competitors. We compete across various segments within the healthcare market, including with respect to traditional healthcare providers and medical practices, technology platforms, care management and coordination, digital health, telehealth and telemedicine and health information exchange.

Our future growth and the success of our business are highly dependent on gaining new members and retaining existing members in both existing and target markets. We currently face competition from a range of companies and providers, including traditional healthcare providers and medical practices that offer similar services, often at lower prices, and that are continuing to develop additional products and becoming more sophisticated and effective. We face competition from primary care providers who are employed by or affiliated with health networks, including our health network partners, unaffiliated freestanding outpatient centers and specialty hospitals (some of which are physician-owned) for market share in specialty services and for quality providers and personnel. Our indirect competitors include episodic consumer-driven point solutions such as telemedicine as well as urgent care providers, which may typically pay providers on a fee-for-service basis rather than the salary-based model we employ. In addition, large, well-financed health plans have in some cases developed their own health care or expert medical service tools and may provide these solutions to their customers at discounted prices. In recent years, the number of freestanding specialty hospitals, surgery centers, emergency departments, urgent care centers and diagnostic imaging centers has increased significantly in the geographic areas in which we serve and may provide services similar to those we offer. In some cases, these competitors are more established, may offer a broader array of services or newer or more desirable facilities to patients and providers, and may have larger or more specialized medical staff to admit and refer patients, among other things. Some of the clinics and medical offices that compete with the One Medical PCs are also owned by government agencies or not-for-profit organizations supported by endowments and charitable contributions and can finance capital expenditures and operations on a tax-exempt basis. We expect to continue to encounter competition from system-affiliated hospitals, healthcare companies, and health insurers as well as private equity companies seeking to acquire providers in specific geographical markets. 

Because healthcare consumers are now able to access hospital performance data on quality measures and patient satisfaction, as well as standard charges for services, to compare competing providers, if any of the One Medical PCs achieve poor results (or results that are lower than our competitors’) on quality measures or patient satisfaction surveys, or if our standard charges are or are perceived to be higher than our competitors, we may attract fewer members. Additional quality measures and trends toward clinical or billing transparency, including recent price transparency proposals that would require third-party payers and hospitals to make their pricing information publicly available, may also have a negative impact on our competitive position and patient volumes, as patients may prefer to use lower cost healthcare providers if they deliver services that are perceived to be similar in quality to ours. Moreover, our enterprise clients or health network partners may elect to terminate their arrangements with us and enter into arrangements with our competitors, particularly in primary care. For example, our health network partners may wish

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to enter into competitor arrangements that are more favorable from a fee or price perspective or that provide greater exposure to, or volume of, patients. In addition, in any geographic area, we may enter into an exclusive contractual arrangement with a single health network partner, which could allow competitors to contract with other health network partners in the same area and gain market share for potential patients. Competitors may also be better positioned to contract with leading health network partners in our target markets, including existing markets after our current contracts expire. If our competitors are better able to attract patients, contract with health network partners, recruit providers, expand services or obtain favorable managed care contracts at their facilities than we are, we may experience an overall decline in member volumes and net revenue. Competition from specialized providers, health plans, medical practices, digital health companies and other parties will result in continued member acquisition and patient visit and utilization volume pressure, which could negatively impact our revenue and market share. 

Some of our competitors may have greater name recognition, longer operating histories and significantly greater resources than we do. In addition, our current or potential competitors may be acquired by third parties with greater available resources. As a result, our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements and may have the ability to initiate or withstand substantial price competition. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, existing or new competitors have developed or further invested in telemedicine and remote medicine programs and ventures, which would compete with our virtual care offerings. Also, current and potential competitors have established, and may in the future establish, cooperative relationships with vendors of complementary technologies or services to increase the availability of their solutions in the marketplace. Accordingly, new competitors or alliances may emerge that have greater market share, a larger member or patient base, more widely adopted proprietary technologies, greater marketing expertise, greater financial resources and larger sales forces than we have, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Our competitors could also be better positioned to serve certain segments of the healthcare market, which would limit our member and patient growth. In light of these factors, even if our solution is more effective than those of our competitors, current or potential members, health network partners and enterprise clients may accept competitive solutions in lieu of purchasing our solution. If we are unable to successfully compete in the healthcare market, our business would be harmed.

 

Competition in our market also involves rapidly changing technologies, evolving regulatory requirements and industry expectations, frequent new product and service introductions and changes in customer requirements. If we are unable to keep pace with the evolving needs of our clients, members and partners and continue to develop, enhance and market new applications and services in a timely and efficient manner, demand for our solutions and services may be reduced and our business and results of operations would be harmed. We cannot guarantee that we will possess the resources, either financial or personnel, for the research, design and development of new applications or services, or that we will be able to utilize these resources successfully and avoid technological or market obsolescence. Further, we cannot assure you that technological advances by one or more of our competitors or future competitors will not result in our present or future applications and services becoming uncompetitive or obsolete.

We may not grow at the rates we historically have achieved or at all, even if our key metrics may imply future growth, which could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We have experienced significant growth in our recent history. Future revenue may not grow at these same rates or may decline. Our future growth will depend, in part, on our ability to grow consumer and enterprise members in existing markets, expand into new markets, expand our services offering and grow our health network partnerships. We are continually executing a number of growth initiatives, strategies and operating plans designed to enhance our business. For example, we are expanding our strategic relationships with health network partners to build integrated delivery networks for broad access to their networks of specialists and hospitals. The anticipated benefits from these efforts are based on several assumptions that may prove to be inaccurate. We may not be able to successfully complete these growth initiatives, strategies and operating plans and realize all of the benefits, including growth targets and cost savings, that we expect to achieve, or it may be more costly to do so than we anticipate. We can provide no assurances that even if our key metrics indicate future growth, we will continue to grow our revenue or to generate net income.  Moreover, our continued implementation of these programs may disrupt our operations and performance. If, for any reason, the benefits we realize are less than our estimates or the implementation of these growth initiatives, strategies and operating plans negatively impact our operations or cost more or take longer to effectuate than we expect, or if our assumptions prove inaccurate, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.

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If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our expenses could increase more than expected, our revenue may not increase proportionally or at all, and we may be unable to implement our business strategy.

We have experienced significant growth in recent periods, which puts strain on our business, operations and employees. For example, we grew from 1,340 employees as of December 31, 2018 to 1,957 employees as of December 31, 2020. We have also increased our customer and membership bases significantly over the past two years. We anticipate that our operations will continue to rapidly expand. To manage our current and anticipated future growth effectively, we must continue to maintain and enhance our IT infrastructure, financial and accounting systems and controls. In particular, in order for our providers to provide quality healthcare services and longitudinal care to patients and avoid burn-out, we need to provide them with adequate IT and technology support, which requires sufficient staffing for these areas. In addition, as we expand in existing markets and move into new markets, we will need to attract and retain an increasing number of quality healthcare professionals and providers. Failure to retain a sufficient number of providers may result in overworking of existing personnel leading to burn-out or poor quality of healthcare services. In addition, our strategy is to provide longitudinal care to members and patients, which requires substantial time and attention from our providers. We must also attract, train and retain a significant number of qualified sales and marketing personnel, customer support personnel, professional services personnel, software engineers, technical personnel and management personnel, and the availability of such personnel, in particular software engineers, may be constrained.

A key aspect to managing our growth is our ability to scale our capabilities to implement our solutions and services satisfactorily with respect to both large and demanding enterprise clients and health network partners as well as individual consumers. Large clients and partners often require specific features or functions unique to their membership base, which, at a time of significant growth or during periods of high demand, may strain our implementation capacity and hinder our ability to successfully provide our services to our clients and partners in a timely manner. We may also need to make further investments in our technology to decrease our costs. If we are unable to address the needs of our clients, partners or members, or our clients, partners or members are unsatisfied with the quality of our solutions or services, they may not renew their contracts or memberships, seek to cancel or terminate their relationship with us or may renew on less favorable terms, any of which could harm our business and results of operations.

Failure to effectively manage our growth could also lead us to over-invest or under-invest in development and operations, result in weaknesses in our infrastructure, internal systems, processes or controls, give rise to operational mistakes, financial losses, loss of productivity or business opportunities and result in loss of employees and reduced productivity of remaining employees. In order to manage the increasing complexities of our business, we will need to continue to scale and adapt our operational, financial and management controls, as well as our reporting systems and procedures. We may not be able to successfully implement and scale improvements to our systems, processes and controls or in connection with third party software in a timely or efficient manner or in a manner that does not negatively affect our operating results. For example, we may not be able to effectively monitor certain extraordinary contract requirements or provisions that are individually negotiated as the number of transactions continues to grow. In addition, our systems and processes may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions, or fraud, including any fraudulent activities conducted or facilitated by our employees or the providers or staff at the One Medical PCs. Any of these events could result in our expenses increasing more than expected, lack of growth or slower than expected growth in our revenue, and inability to implement our business strategies. The quality of our services may also suffer, which could negatively affect our reputation and harm our ability to attract and retain members, clients and partners.

Investment of significant capital expenditures to support our growth may also divert financial resources from other projects such as the development of new applications and services. In particular, as we enter new markets or seek to expand our presence in existing markets, we will need to make upfront capital expenditures, including to lease and furnish medical office space, acquire medical equipment, staff providers at such medical offices and incur related expenses. As we do not recognize patient revenue until those offices open and begin receiving patients, our margins may be reduced during the periods in which such capital expenditures were incurred. Expansion in new or existing markets can be lengthy and cost-intensive, and we may encounter difficulties or unanticipated issues during the process of opening such new medical offices. We cannot assure you that we will be able to open our planned new medical offices, in existing or new markets, within our operating budgets and planned timelines, or at all. Cost overruns in the process of opening new offices can result in higher than expected cost of care, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, and operating expenses as compared to revenue in the applicable quarter. In addition, we cannot assure

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you that new medical offices will operate efficiently or be strategically placed to attract the optimal number of patients. If an office is underperforming for any reason, we could incur additional costs to relocate or shut down that office. 

 

It is essential to our ongoing business that we attract and retain an appropriate number of quality primary care providers to support our services and that we maintain good relations with those providers.

The success of our business depends in significant part on the number, quality, specialties and admitting and scheduling practices of the licensed providers who have been admitted to the medical staffs of the One Medical PCs, as well as providers who affiliate with us and use the One Medical PCs as an extension of their practices. Medical staff of the One Medical PCs are free to terminate their association at any time. In addition, although providers who own interests in the One Medical PCs are generally subject to agreements restricting them from owning an interest in competitive facilities or transferring their ownership interests in the One Medical PCs without our consent, we may not learn of, or may be unsuccessful in preventing, our provider partners from acquiring interests in competitive facilities or making transfers without our consent. Moreover, in certain states in which we operate, such as California, non-competition and other restrictive covenants may be limited in their enforceability, particularly against physicians and providers.

If we are unable to recruit and retain board-certified providers and other healthcare professionals, our business and results of operations could be harmed and our ability to grow could be impaired. In any particular market, providers could demand higher payments or take other actions that could result in higher medical costs, less attractive service for our members or difficulty meeting regulatory or accreditation requirements. Our ability to develop and maintain satisfactory relationships with providers also may be negatively impacted by other factors not associated with us, such as changes in Medicare reimbursement levels and other pressures on healthcare providers and consolidation activity among hospitals, provider groups and healthcare providers.

We expect to encounter increased competition from health insurers and private equity companies seeking to acquire providers in the markets where we operate practices and, where permitted by law, employ providers. In some of our markets, provider recruitment and retention are affected by a shortage of providers and the difficulties that providers can experience in obtaining affordable malpractice insurance or finding insurers willing to provide such insurance. Providers may also leave the One Medical PCs or perceive them as providing a poor quality of life if the One Medical PCs do not adequately manage causes of provider burnout and workload, some of which we have little to no control over under the ASAs. Our business is dependent on providing longitudinal and long-term care for members and requires providers to consistently follow members over time, track overall long-term health and be available 24/7 for virtual care questions and services. If we are unable to efficiently manage provider workload and capacity to provide longitudinal and long-term care, our providers may depart and our patients may experience lower quality of care, which would harm our business. Furthermore, our ability to recruit and employ providers is closely regulated. For example, the types, amount and duration of compensation and assistance we can provide to recruited providers are limited by the Stark law, the Anti-kickback Statute, state anti-kickback statutes and related regulations. If we are unable to attract and retain sufficient numbers of quality providers by providing adequate support personnel, technologically advanced equipment and facilities that meet the needs of those providers and their patients, memberships and patient visits may decrease, our enterprise clients may alter or terminate their membership contracts with us and our operating performance may decline.

We incur significant upfront costs in our enterprise client and health network partner relationships, and if we are unable to maintain and grow these relationships over time, we are likely to fail to recover these costs, which could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our business model and growth depend heavily on achieving economies of scale because our initial upfront investment for any enterprise client or health network partner is costly and the associated revenue is recognized on a ratable basis. We devote significant resources to establishing relationships with our clients and partners and implementing our solutions and services. This is particularly so in the case of large enterprises that, to date, have contributed a large portion of our membership base and revenue as well as health network partners, who often require specific features or functions unique to their particular processes or under the terms of their contracts with us, including significant systems integration and interoperability undertakings. Accordingly, our results of operations will depend in substantial part on our ability to deliver a successful experience for these clients and related members and partners

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to persuade our clients and partners to maintain and grow their relationship with us over time. Additionally, as our business is growing significantly, our new customer and partner acquisition costs could outpace our revenue growth and we may be unable to reduce our total operating costs through economies of scale such that we are unable to achieve profitability. If we fail to achieve appropriate economies of scale or if we fail to manage or anticipate the evolution and in future periods, demand of our clients and partners, our business may be harmed.

Our marketing cycle can be long and unpredictable and requires considerable time and expense, which may cause our results of operations to fluctuate.

The marketing cycle for our solutions and services from initial contact with a potential enterprise client or health network partner to contract execution and implementation varies widely by enterprise client or partner. Some of our partners undertake a significant and prolonged evaluation process, including to determine whether our solutions and services meet their unique healthcare needs, which evaluation can be complex given the size and scale of our clients and partners. Our contractual arrangements with our health network partners are often highly specific to each partner depending on their needs, the characteristics and patient demographics of the market they serve, their growth plans and their operations, among other things. As a result, our marketing efforts to any new health network partner must be tailored to meet its specific strategic demands, which can be time consuming and require significant upfront cost. These efforts also must address interoperability between our IT infrastructure and systems and such partner’s systems, which can result in substantial cost without any assurance that we will ultimately enter into a contractual arrangement with any such partner.

Our large enterprise clients often initially restrict direct access by us to their employees to curb information overflow. As a result, we may not be able to directly market our solutions and services to, and educate, employees at our enterprise clients until much later after execution of an agreement with such clients. This can result in limited membership acquisition at any such enterprise client for a significant period of time following contract execution, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to gain sufficient membership acquisition to justify our upfront investments. Further, even after contract execution with a particular enterprise client, we generally compete with other health service providers who market to the same employees at such enterprise client, and our marketing and employee education efforts may not be successful in winning members from other competing services, many of which are traditional healthcare models that employees are more familiar with. We also incur significant marketing costs to grow awareness of our solution and services in both existing markets and new geographic markets for potential new members. Our marketing efforts for member acquisition are dependent in part on word of mouth, which may take substantial time to spread. In addition, for both new and existing geographic markets, we will need to continuously open medical offices in targeted locations to build awareness, which is both time-intensive and requires substantial upfront fixed costs. If our substantial upfront marketing and implementation investments do not result in sufficient sales to justify our investments, it could harm our business and results of operations.

We could experience losses or liability, including medical liability claims, causing us to incur significant expenses and requiring us to pay significant damages if not covered by insurance.

Our business entails the risk of medical liability claims against the One Medical PCs, their providers, and 1Life and we have in the past been subject to such claims in the ordinary course of business. Although 1Life, the One Medical PCs and individual providers carry insurance at the entity level and at the provider level covering medical malpractice claims in amounts that we believe are appropriate in light of the risks attendant to our business, successful medical liability claims could result in substantial damage awards that exceed the limits of the One Medical PCs’ insurance coverage. Professional liability insurance is expensive and insurance premiums may increase significantly in the future, particularly as we expand our services and as the professional liability insurance market becomes more challenging due to COVID-19. As a result, adequate professional liability insurance may not be available to our providers or to us in the future at acceptable costs or at all. Any claims made against us that are not fully covered by insurance could be costly to defend against, result in substantial damage awards against us and divert the attention of our management and our providers from our operations, which could harm our business. In addition, any claims may significantly harm our business or reputation.

Moreover, we do not control the providers and other healthcare professionals at the One Medical PCs with respect to the practice of medicine and the provision of healthcare services. While we seek to attract high quality professionals, the risk of liability, including through unexpected medical outcomes, is inherent in the healthcare

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industry, and negative outcomes may result for any of our members. We attempt to limit our liability to members, clients and partners by contract; however, the limitations of liability set forth in the contracts may not be enforceable or may not otherwise protect us from liability for damages. Additionally, we may be subject to claims that are not explicitly covered by such contractual limits.

We also maintain general liability coverage for certain risks, claims and litigation proceedings. However, this coverage may not continue to be available on acceptable terms or in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims against us, and may include larger self-insured retentions or exclusions. In addition, the insurer might disclaim coverage as to any future claim. Any liability claim brought against us, or any ensuing litigation, regardless of merit, could result in a substantial cost to us, divert management’s attention from operations and could also result in an increase of our insurance premiums and damage to our reputation. A successful claim not fully covered by our insurance could have a negative impact on our liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations.

Current or future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend.

 

We are subject, and in the future may become subject from time to time, to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business such as claims brought by our members, clients or partners in connection with commercial disputes, consumer class action claims, employment claims made by our current or former employees or other litigation matters. In particular, as we grow our base of consumer members, we may be subject to an increasing number of consumer claims, disputes and class action complaints, including an ongoing claim alleging misrepresentations with respect to our membership fees. While our membership terms generally require individual arbitration, we cannot assure you that such terms will be enforced, which may result in costly class action litigation. Litigation may result in substantial costs, settlement and judgments and may divert management’s attention and resources, which may substantially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Insurance may not cover such claims, may not provide sufficient payments to cover all of the costs to resolve one or more such claims and may not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, thereby leading analysts or potential investors to reduce their expectations of our performance, which could reduce the market price of our common stock.

Our labor costs could be negatively impacted by competition for staffing, the shortage of experienced nurses and labor union activity.

The operations of the One Medical PCs are dependent on the efforts, abilities and experience of our management and medical support personnel, including nurses, therapists, and lab technicians, as well as our providers. We compete with other healthcare providers in recruiting and retaining employees, and, like others in the healthcare industry, we continue to experience a shortage of nurses in certain disciplines and geographic areas. As a result, from time to time, we may be required to enhance wages and benefits to recruit and retain experienced employees, make greater investments in education and training for newly licensed medical support personnel, or hire more expensive temporary or contract employees. Furthermore, state-mandated nurse-staffing ratios in California affect not only our labor costs, but, if we are unable to hire the necessary number of experienced nurses to meet the required ratios, they may also cause us to limit patient volumes, which would have a corresponding negative impact on our net revenue. In addition, while none of our employees are represented by a labor union as of December 31, 2020, our employees may seek to be represented by a labor union in the future. If some or all of our employees were to become unionized, it could increase labor costs. In general, our failure to recruit and retain qualified management, experienced nurses and other medical support personnel, or to control labor costs, could harm our business.

In order to support the growth of our business, we may need to incur additional indebtedness or seek capital through new equity or debt financings, which sources of additional capital may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all.

Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception and we intend to continue to make significant investments to support our business growth, respond to business challenges or opportunities, expand our services in new geographic locations, enhance our operating infrastructure and existing solutions and services and potentially acquire complementary businesses and technologies. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, our net cash used in operating activities was $31.7 million and $3.6 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020,

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we had $113.0 million of cash and cash equivalents and $570.0 million of short-term marketable securities, which are held for working capital purposes. As of December 31, 2020, we had $316.3 million aggregate principal amount of debt outstanding under our convertible senior notes issued in May 2020, or the 2025 Notes.

As of December 31, 2020, we have also deferred payroll taxes in the amount of $7.0 million and received $2.6 million in grants as part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, or CARES Act, through the Provider Relief Fund, or PRF, of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, to help offset the impact of increased healthcare related expenses and lost revenues attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. We are not required to repay this grant, provided we attest to and comply with certain terms and conditions, including the use of PRF funds for only permitted purposes and only after funds from other sources obligated to reimburse recipients have been applied. If we are unable to attest to or comply with current or future terms and conditions, our ability to retain some or all of the PRF funds received may be impacted.

Our future capital requirements may be significantly different from our current estimates and will depend on many factors, including our growth rate, membership renewal activity and growth, the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, the introduction of new or enhanced services, expansion of services to new geographic locations, addition of new health network partners and the continuing market acceptance of our healthcare services. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings or collaborative arrangements to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Moreover, while we are not restricted from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt, recapitalizing our debt or taking a number of other actions under the terms of the indenture governing the 2025 Notes, such actions could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on the notes when due.

Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve additional restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. In addition, during times of economic instability, including the recent disruptions to, and volatility in, the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide resulting from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it has been difficult for many companies to obtain financing in the public markets or to obtain debt financing, and we may not be able to obtain additional financing on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, it could harm our business and growth prospects.

Our revenues have historically been concentrated among our top customers, and the loss of any of these customers could reduce our revenues and adversely impact our operating results.

Historically, our revenue has been concentrated among a small number of customers. In 2019 and 2020, our top three customers accounted for 36% and 35% of our net revenue, respectively. These customers included Google Inc., which accounted for 10% of our net revenue for 2020, a commercial payer, and a health network partner. As a result, the loss of one or more of these customers could reduce our revenue, harm our results of operations and limit our growth.

Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly, which could adversely impact the value of our common stock.

Our quarterly results of operations, including our net revenue, loss from operations, net loss and cash flows, have varied and may vary significantly in the future, and period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful. Accordingly, our quarterly results should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, without limitation, the following:

 

the addition or loss of health network partners or enterprise clients, including through acquisitions or consolidations of such entities;

 

the addition or loss of contracts with, or modification of contract terms with, payers, including the reduction of reimbursements for our services or the termination of our network contracts with payers;

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seasonal and other variations in the timing and volume of patient visits, such as the historically higher volume of use of our service during peak cold and flu season months;

 

fluctuations in unemployment rates resulting in reductions in total members;

 

slowdown in the overall economy resulting in losses of enterprise clients as they scale back on expenses;

 

new enterprise sponsorships and renewal of existing enterprise sponsorships and the timing thereof as well as enterprise and consumer member activation and renewal and timing thereof;

 

the timing of recognition of revenue;

 

the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure, including upfront capital expenditures and other costs related to expanding in existing markets or entering new markets, as well as providing administrative and operational services to the One Medical PCs under the ASAs;

 

our ability to effectively manage the size and composition of our proprietary network of healthcare professionals relative to the level of demand for services from our members;

 

the timing and success of introductions of new applications and services by us or our competitors, including well-known competitors with significant market clout and perceived ability to compete favorably due to access to resources and overall market reputation;

 

changes in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, health network partners or enterprise clients; and

 

the timing of expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies or businesses and potential future charges for impairment of goodwill from acquired companies.

A large portion of our net revenue in any given quarter is derived from contracts entered into with our partners and clients during previous quarters as well as membership fees that are recognized ratably over the term of each membership. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed contracts or memberships in any one quarter may not be fully reflected in our net revenue for that quarter. Such declines, however, would negatively affect our net revenue in future periods and the effect of loss of members, and potential changes in our rate of renewals or renewal terms, may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. While we encourage enterprise clients to purchase memberships off of their periodic enrollment cycle, we cannot guarantee that they will do so. Accordingly, the effect of changes in the industry impacting our business or loss of members may not be reflected in our short-term results of operations. Any fluctuation in our quarterly results may not accurately reflect the underlying performance of our business and could cause a decline in the trading price of our common stock.

If we lose key members of our senior management team or are unable to attract and retain executive officers and employees we need to support our operations and growth, our business and growth may be harmed.

Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our key executive officers, particularly our Chair, Chief Executive Officer and President and 1Life’s Chief Medical Officer. These executive officers are at-will employees and therefore they may terminate employment with us at any time with no advance notice. We also do not maintain any key person life insurance policies. Further, we rely on our leadership team in the areas of research and development, marketing, services and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. The replacement of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees would likely involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. We are particularly dependent on 1Life’s Chief Medical Officer, who is the sole director and officer of a majority of the One Medical PCs and is responsible for overseeing the operation of several of the One Medical PCs, among other roles. While we have succession plans in place and have employment or service arrangements with a limited number of key executives, these measures do not guarantee that the services of these or suitable successor executives will continue to be available to us. 

To continue to execute our growth strategy, we also must attract and retain highly skilled personnel. Competition is intense for qualified professionals and we may not be successful in continuing to attract and retain

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qualified personnel. We have from time to time in the past experienced, and we expect to continue to experience in the future, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled personnel with appropriate qualifications. The pool of qualified personnel with experience working in the healthcare market is limited overall. In addition, many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. As a result, our success is dependent on our ability to evolve our culture, align our talent with our business needs, engage our employees and inspire our employees to be open to change, to innovate and to maintain member- and customer-focus when delivering our services. 

In addition, job candidates often consider the value of the stock options or other equity-based awards they are to receive in connection with their employment. Volatility in the price of our stock may, therefore, negatively impact our ability to attract or retain highly skilled personnel. Further, the requirement to expense stock options and other equity-based compensation may discourage us from granting the size or type of stock option or equity awards that job candidates require to join our company. Our business would be harmed if we fail to adequately plan for succession of our executives and senior management; or if we fail to effectively recruit, integrate, retain and develop key talent and/or align our talent with our business needs and the current rapidly changing environment.

We may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in dilution to our stockholders and otherwise disrupt our operations and we may have difficulty integrating any such acquisitions successfully or realizing the anticipated benefits therefrom, any of which could harm our business.

We may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, applications and services or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our business, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated. We do not have a history of acquiring or investing in businesses, applications and services or technologies and may not have the experience or capabilities to successfully execute such transactions or integrate them following consummation.

In addition, if we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully, or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including, but not limited to:

 

inability to integrate or benefit from acquired technologies or services in a profitable manner;

 

lack of experience in making acquisitions and integrating acquired businesses or assets;

 

unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;

 

difficulty integrating the accounting systems, operations and personnel of the acquired business;

 

difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy products and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;

 

diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;

 

negative impacts to our existing relationships with enterprise clients or health network partners as a result of the acquisition;

 

the potential loss of key employees;

 

use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and

 

use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.

In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our results of operations based on this impairment assessment process, which could harm our results of operations.

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Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could harm our results of operations. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our business may be harmed.

The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market and revenue growth included in this Annual Report may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

 

Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. In particular, the size and growth of the overall U.S. healthcare market is subject to significant variables, including a changing regulatory environment and population demographic, which can be difficult to measure, estimate or quantify. Our business depends on member acquisition and retention, which further drives revenue from our contracts with health network partners. Estimates and forecasts of these factors in any given market is difficult and affected by multiple variables such as population growth, concentration of enterprise clients and population density, among other things. Further, we cannot assure you that we will be able to sufficiently penetrate certain market segments included in our estimates and forecasts, including due to limited deployable capital, ineffective marketing efforts or the inability to develop sufficient presence in a given market to gain members or contract with employers and health network partners in that market. Once we acquire a member, apart from fixed annual membership fees and payments from health care partners, we primarily derive revenue from patient in-office visits, which may be difficult to forecast over time, particularly as our billable service mix continues to expand, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, our contractual arrangements with health network partners typically have highly tailored capitation and other fee structures which vary across health network partners and are dependent on the number of members that receive healthcare services in a health network partner’s network. As a result, we may not be able to accurately forecast revenue from our health network partners. For these reasons, the estimates and forecasts in this Annual Report relating to the size and expected growth of our target markets may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the markets in which we compete meet our size estimates and forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Natural or man-made disasters and other similar events may significantly disrupt our business and negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our offices and facilities may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, extreme weather conditions, power outages, fires, floods, protests and civil unrest, nuclear disasters and acts of terrorism or other criminal activities, which may result in temporary office closures and render it difficult or impossible for us to operate our business for some period of time. In particular, certain of the facilities we lease to house our computer and telecommunications equipment are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity, and our insurance coverage may not compensate us for losses that may occur in the event of an earthquake or other significant natural disaster. Any disruptions in our operations related to the repair or replacement of our offices, could negatively impact our business and results of operations and harm our reputation. Although we maintain an insurance policy covering damage to property we rent, such insurance may not be available or sufficient to compensate for the different types of associated losses that may occur, including business interruption losses. Any such losses or damages could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our health network partners’ facilities may be harmed or rendered inoperable by such natural or man-made disasters, which may cause disruptions, difficulties or other negative effects on our business and operations.

Our financial results may be adversely impacted by changes in accounting principles applicable to us.

Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the SEC and other various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. For example, in May 2014, the FASB issued accounting standards update No. 2014-09 (Topic 606), Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP and specifies that an entity should recognize revenue from the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services; this new accounting standard also impacts the recognition of sales commissions.

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We have adopted this standard as of January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective method. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. As a result of adopting this standard, we recorded an adjustment to deferred contract costs of $65 thousand as of January 1, 2019, to reflect an increase in the amount of commission costs previously recorded. The application of this new guidance could harm our operating results in one or more periods as compared to what they would have been under previous standards.

Under Topic 606, more estimates, judgments, and assumptions are required within the revenue recognition process than were previously required. Our reported financial position and financial results may be harmed if our estimates or judgments prove to be wrong, assumptions change, or actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions. Any difficulties in implementing these pronouncements could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm our business.

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could be harmed.

 

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates.” The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, determination of useful lives for property and equipment, allowance for doubtful accounts, valuation of common stock, stock option valuations, contingent liabilities and income taxes. Our results of operations may be harmed if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Government Regulation

The impact of healthcare reform legislation and other changes in the healthcare industry and in healthcare spending is currently unknown, but may harm our business.

Our revenue is dependent on the healthcare industry and could be affected by changes in healthcare spending and policy. The healthcare industry is subject to changing political, regulatory and other influences. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or ACA, made major changes in how health care is delivered and reimbursed, and increased access to health insurance benefits to the uninsured and underinsured populations in the United States. ACA, among other things, increased the number of individuals with Medicaid and private insurance coverage.

 

ACA has been subject to legislative and regulatory changes and court challenges and there is uncertainty regarding whether, when, and how ACA may be changed, the ultimate outcome of court challenges and how the law will be interpreted and implemented. Changes by Congress or government agencies could eliminate or alter provisions beneficial to us, while leaving in place provisions reducing our reimbursement or otherwise negatively impacting our business. 

In addition, current and prior healthcare reform proposals have included the concept of creating a single payer such as “Medicare for All” or a public option for health insurance. If enacted, these proposals could have an extensive impact on the healthcare industry, including us and may impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the trading price of our security. We are unable to predict whether such reforms may be enacted or their impact on our operations.

 

We are also impacted by the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, under which physicians must choose to participate in one of two payment formulas, Merit-Based Incentive Payment System, or MIPS, or Alternative

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Payment Models, or APMs. Beginning in 2019, MIPS allows eligible physicians to receive upward or downward adjustments to their Medicare Part B payments based on certain quality and cost metrics, among other measures. As an alternative, physicians can choose to participate in an Advanced APM. Advanced APMs are exempt from the MIPS requirements, and physicians who are meaningful participants in APMs will receive bonus payments from Medicare pursuant to the law.

We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the number of individuals who qualify for health care coverage and amounts that federal and state governments and other third-party payers will pay for healthcare services, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our arrangements with health networks may be subject to governmental or regulatory scrutiny or challenge.

 

Some of our relationships with health networks involve risk arrangements, such as capitated payments designed to achieve alignment of financial incentives and to encourage close collaboration on clinical care for patients. Although we believe that our health network contracts involving capitated payments comply with the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the Stark Law, we cannot assure you that regulators or other governmental entities will agree with our interpretation of these arrangements under applicable law. Our health network partnerships may be subject to scrutiny or investigation from time to time by regulators or other governmental entities, which may be lengthy, costly, and divert resources and our management’s attention from managing our business and growth. If our health network partnerships are challenged and found to violate the Anti-Kickback Statute or the Stark Law, we could incur substantial financial penalties, reimbursement denials, repayments or recoupments, or exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, any of which could harm our business.

Evolving government regulations may increase costs or negatively impact our results of operations.

 

Our operations may be subject to direct and indirect adoption, expansion, revision or reinterpretation of various laws and regulations. In the event any such changes in law or interpretation impacts our services or contractual arrangements, we may be required to modify such services, or revise our arrangements, in a manner that undermines the attractiveness of services or may not preserve the same economics, or may be required to discontinue such arrangements. In each case, our revenue may decline and our business may be harmed. Compliance with changes in interpretation of and laws and regulations may require us to change our practices at an undeterminable and possibly significant initial and recurring monetary expense. These additional monetary expenditures may increase future overhead, which could harm our results of operations.

We have identified what we believe are areas of government regulation that, if changed, could be costly to us. These include: fraud, waste and abuse laws; rules governing the practice of medicine by providers; licensure standards for primary care providers and behavioral health professionals; laws limiting the corporate practice of medicine and professional fee splitting; tax laws and regulations applicable to our annual membership fees; cybersecurity and privacy laws; laws and rules relating to the distinction between independent contractors and employees (including recent developments in California that have expanded the scope of workers that are treated as employees instead of independent contractors); and tax and other laws encouraging employer-sponsored health insurance and group benefits. There could be laws and regulations applicable to our business that we have not identified or that, if changed, may be costly to us, and we cannot predict all the ways in which implementation of such laws and regulations may affect us.

We are dependent on our relationships with the One Medical PCs, which are affiliated professional entities that we do not own, to provide healthcare services, and our business would be harmed if those relationships were disrupted or if our arrangements with the One Medical PCs become subject to legal challenges.

 

The corporate practice of medicine prohibition exists in some form, by statute, regulation, board of medicine or attorney general guidance, or case law, in certain of the states in which we operate. These laws generally prohibit the practice of medicine by lay persons or entities and are intended to prevent unlicensed persons or entities from interfering with or inappropriately influencing providers’ professional judgment. As a result, the One Medical PCs

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that deliver health care services to our members are wholly owned by providers licensed in their respective states, including Andrew Diamond, M.D., Ph.D., 1Life’s Chief Medical Officer who oversees the operation of several of the One Medical PCs as the sole director and officer of a majority of the One Medical PCs. Under the administrative services agreements, or ASAs, between 1Life and each One Medical PC, we provide various administrative and operations support services in exchange for scheduled fees at the fair market value of our services provided to each One Medical PC. As a result, our ability to receive cash fees from the One Medical PCs is limited to the fair market value of the services provided under the ASAs. To the extent our ability to receive cash fees from the One Medical PCs is limited, our ability to use that cash for growth, debt service or other uses at the One Medical PC may be impaired and, as a result, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Our ability to perform medical and digital health services in a particular U.S. state is directly dependent upon the applicable laws governing the practice of medicine, healthcare delivery and fee splitting in such locations, which are subject to changing political, regulatory and other influences. The extent to which a U.S. state considers particular actions or contractual relationships to constitute the practice of medicine is subject to change and to evolving interpretations by medical boards and state attorneys general, among others, each of which has broad discretion. There is a risk that U.S. state authorities in some jurisdictions may find that our contractual relationships with the One Medical PCs, which govern the provision of medical and digital health services and the payment of administrative and operations support fees, violate laws prohibiting the corporate practice of medicine and fee splitting. Accordingly, we must monitor our compliance with laws in every jurisdiction in which we operate on an ongoing basis, and we cannot provide assurance that our activities and arrangements, if challenged, will be found to be in compliance with the law. Additionally, it is possible that the laws and rules governing the practice of medicine, including the provision of digital health services, and fee splitting in one or more jurisdictions may change in a manner adverse to our business. While the ASAs prohibit us from controlling, influencing or otherwise interfering with the practice of medicine at each One Medical PC, and provide that physicians retain exclusive control and responsibility for all aspects of the practice of medicine and the delivery of medical services, we cannot assure you that our contractual arrangements and activities with the One Medical PCs will be free from scrutiny from U.S. state authorities, and we cannot guarantee that subsequent interpretation of the corporate practice of medicine and fee splitting laws will not circumscribe our business operations. State corporate practice of medicine doctrines also often impose penalties on physicians themselves for aiding the corporate practice of medicine, which could discourage providers from participating in our network of physicians. If a successful legal challenge or an adverse change in relevant laws were to occur, and we were unable to adapt our business model accordingly, our operations in affected jurisdictions would be disrupted, which could harm our business.

 

Any material changes in our relationship with or among the One Medical PCs, whether resulting from a dispute among the entities, a challenge from a governmental regulator, a change in government regulation, or the loss of these relationships or contracts with the One Medical PCs, could impair our ability to provide services to our members and could harm our business. For example, our arrangements in place to help ensure an orderly succession of the owner or owners of the One Medical PCs upon the occurrence of certain events may be challenged, which may impact our relationship with the One Medical PCs and harm our business and results of operations. The ASAs and these succession arrangements could also subject us to additional scrutiny by federal and state regulatory bodies regarding federal and state fraud and abuse laws. Any scrutiny, investigation or litigation with regard to our arrangement with the One Medical PCs, and any resulting penalties, including monetary fines and restrictions on or mandated changes to our current business and operating arrangements, could harm our business.

Noncompliance with billing and documentation requirements could result in non-payment or subject us to billing or other compliance investigations by government authorities, private insurers or health network partners.

Payers typically have differing and complex billing and documentation requirements. If we fail to comply with these payer-specific requirements, we may not be paid for our services or payment may be substantially delayed or reduced. Moreover, federal and state laws, rules and regulations impose substantial penalties, including criminal and civil fines, monetary penalties, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs and imprisonment, on entities or individuals (including any individual corporate officers or physicians deemed responsible) that fraudulently or wrongfully bill government-funded programs or other third-party payers for healthcare services. Both federal and state government agencies have heightened and coordinated civil and criminal enforcement efforts as part of numerous ongoing investigations of healthcare companies, as well as their executives and managers, with enforcement actions covering a variety of topics, including referral and billing practices. Further, the federal False

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Claims Act and a growing number of state laws allow private parties to bring qui tam or “whistleblower” lawsuits against companies for false billing violations. Some of our activities could become the subject of governmental investigations or inquiries.

From time to time in the ordinary course of business, governmental agencies and private insurers also conduct audits of healthcare providers like us. Such audits could result in the incurrence of additional costs and diversion of management’s time and attention. In addition, such audits could trigger repayment demands based on findings that our services were not medically necessary, were billed at an improper level or otherwise violated applicable billing requirements. Our health network partners also conduct audits under their agreements with us, which audits can also result in disgorgement of fees paid to us under such agreements based on findings that our services were not performed in accordance with the applicable agreement or that we were otherwise not in compliance with any terms of the applicable agreement. Our failure to comply with rules related to billing or adverse findings from audits by our health network partners could result in, among other penalties, non-payment for services rendered or recoupments or refunds of amounts previously paid for such services. We cannot predict whether any future audits, inquiries or investigations, or the public disclosure of such matters, likely would negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the trading price of our securities.

Our use and disclosure of PII, including PHI, is subject to federal and state privacy and security regulations, and our failure to comply with those regulations or to adequately secure such information we hold could result in significant liability or reputational harm and, in turn, substantial harm to our health network partner and enterprise client base, membership base and revenue.

We receive, collect, store, process and use personal information as part of our business. Numerous state and federal laws and regulations inside the United States govern the collection, dissemination, use, privacy, confidentiality, security, availability and integrity of PII including PHI. These laws and regulations include HIPAA, as amended by the HITECH Act, and its implementing regulations, as well as state privacy and data protection laws. HIPAA establishes a set of baseline national privacy and security standards for the protection of PHI, by health plans, healthcare clearinghouses and certain healthcare providers, referred to as covered entities, which includes the One Medical PCs, and the business associates with whom such covered entities contract for services that involve the use or disclosure of PHI, which includes 1Life. States may enforce more stringent privacy and data protection laws exceeding the requirements of HIPAA. 

Compliance with data protection laws and regulations in the United States could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices and compliance procedures in a manner adverse to our business. We strive to comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies and other legal obligations relating to privacy, data protection and information security. However, the various regulatory frameworks for privacy and data protection are, and are likely to remain, uncertain for the foreseeable future, and it is possible that these or other actual or alleged obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules and subject our business practices to uncertainty.

Penalties for violations of these laws vary. For example, penalties for violations of HIPAA and its implementing regulations are assessed at varying rates per violation, subject to a statutory cap for violations of the same standard in a single calendar year. Such penalties may be subject to periodic adjustments. However, a single breach incident can result in violations of multiple standards, which could result in significant fines. HIPAA also authorizes state attorneys general to file suit on behalf of their residents. Courts may award damages, costs and attorneys’ fees related to violations of HIPAA in such cases, which may be significant. While HIPAA does not create a private right of action allowing individuals to sue us in civil court for violations of HIPAA, its standards have been used as the basis for duty of care in state civil suits such as those for negligence or recklessness in the misuse or breach of PHI. Any such penalties or lawsuits could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, HIPAA mandates that the Secretary of HHS conduct periodic compliance audits of HIPAA covered entities or business associates for compliance with the HIPAA Privacy and Security Standards and Breach Notification Rule. It also tasks HHS with establishing a methodology whereby harmed individuals who were the victims of breaches of unsecured PHI may receive a percentage of the civil monetary penalty fine or settlement paid by the violator.

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HIPAA further requires that patients be notified of any unauthorized acquisition, access, use or disclosure of their unsecured PHI that compromises the privacy or security of such information, with certain exceptions related to unintentional or inadvertent use or disclosure by employees or authorized individuals or where there is a good faith belief that the person who received the impermissible disclosure would not have been able to retain the information. HIPAA specifies that such notifications must be made “without unreasonable delay and in no case later than 60 calendar days after discovery of the breach.” If a breach affects 500 patients or more, it must be reported to HHS without unreasonable delay, and HHS will post the name of the breaching entity on its public web site. Breaches affecting 500 patients or more in the same state or jurisdiction must also be reported to the local media. If a breach involves fewer than 500 people, the covered entity must record it in a log and notify HHS at least annually. Any such notifications, including notifications to the public, could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects

Numerous other federal and state laws protect the confidentiality, privacy, availability, integrity and security of personal information, including health information. For example, various states, such as California and Massachusetts, have implemented privacy laws and regulations that in many cases are more restrictive than, and may not be preempted by, the HIPAA rules and may be subject to varying interpretations by courts and government agencies, creating complex compliance issues for us and our health network partners and enterprise clients and potentially exposing us to additional expense, adverse publicity and liability. The cost of compliance could be significant and require investments to enhance our technology and security infrastructure. 

If our security measures, some of which are managed by third parties, are breached or fail, and unauthorized access to personal information or PHI occurs, our reputation could be severely damaged, harming member, client and partner confidence and may result in members curtailing their use of our services. In addition, we could face litigation, significant damages for contract breach, significant penalties and regulatory actions for violation of HIPAA and other applicable laws or regulations and significant costs for remediation, notification to individuals and the public and measures to prevent future occurrences. Any potential security breach could also result in increased costs associated with liability for stolen assets or information, repairing system damage that may have been caused by such breaches, remediation offered to employees, contractors, health network partners, enterprise clients or members in an effort to maintain our business relationships after a breach and implementing measures to prevent future occurrences, including organizational changes, deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees and engaging third-party experts and consultants. 

We outsource important aspects of the storage and transmission of personal information and PHI, and thus rely on third parties to manage functions that have material cybersecurity risks. We require our vendors who handle personal information and PHI to sign information protection addenda and business associate agreements to contractually commit to safeguarding personal information and PHI, to the same extent that applies to us and require such vendors to undergo security examinations. In addition, we periodically hire third-party security experts to assess and test our security posture. However, we cannot assure that these contractual measures and other safeguards will adequately protect us from the risks associated with the storage and transmission of employees’, contractors’, patients’ and members’ personal information and PHI. Any violation of applicable laws, regulations or policies by these parties, including violations that cause us to incur significant liability and put sensitive data at risk, could in turn harm our business.

We also publish statements to our members that describe how we handle and protect personal information. If federal or state regulatory authorities or private litigants consider any portion of these statements to be untrue, we may be subject to claims of misrepresentation and/or deceptive practices, which could lead to significant liabilities and consequences, including, without limitation, significant costs of responding to investigations, defending against litigation, settling claims and complying with regulatory or court orders.

As public and regulatory focus on privacy issues continues to increase, we expect that there will continue to be new laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security. For example, California’s Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or the CCPA, which affords consumers expanded privacy protections went into effect on January 1, 2020, which compliance obligations will be expanded by the California Privacy Right Act, or the CPRA, approved by California voters in November 2020 and expected to go into effect on January 1, 2023. The potential effects of the CCPA and CPRA are far-reaching and will require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses to comply. Further, obligations under

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new laws and regulations may not be clear, creating uncertainty and risk despite our efforts to comply. If we do not comply with existing or new laws, regulations and industry standards related to privacy, data protection and information security, we could be subject to regulatory enforcement, litigation, contract breach claims as well as reputational harm.

Any significant change to applicable laws, regulations or industry practices regarding the collection, use, retention, security or disclosure of our members’ data content, or regarding the manner in which the express or implied consent for the collection, use, retention or disclosure of such data is obtained, could increase our costs to comply and require us to modify our services and features, possibly in a material manner, which we may be unable to complete and may limit our ability to store and process member data, optimize our operations or develop new services and features. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Individuals may claim our call and text messaging services are not compliant with applicable law, including the Telephone Consumer Protection Act.

 

We call and send short message service, or SMS, text messages to members and potential members who are eligible to use our service. While we obtain consent from these individuals to call and send text messages, federal or state regulatory authorities or private litigants may claim that the notices and disclosures we provide, form of consents we obtain or our call and SMS texting practices are not adequate to comply with, or violate applicable law, including the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, or TCPA. These call and SMS texting campaigns are potential sources of risk for class action lawsuits and liability for our company. Numerous class-action suits under federal and state laws have been filed in recent years against companies who conduct call and SMS texting programs, with many resulting in multi-million-dollar settlements to the plaintiffs. While we strive to adhere to strict policies and procedures, the Federal Communications Commission, as the agency that implements and enforces the TCPA, may disagree with our interpretation of the TCPA and subject us to penalties and other consequences for noncompliance. Determination by a court or regulatory agency that our call or SMS text messaging violate the TCPA could subject us to civil penalties, could require us to change some portions of our business and could otherwise harm our business. Even an unsuccessful challenge by members, consumers or regulatory authorities of our activities could result in adverse publicity and could require a costly response from and defense by us.

Risks Related to Information Technology

We rely on internet infrastructure, bandwidth providers, other third parties and our own systems to provide a proprietary services platform to our members and providers, and any failure or interruption in the services provided by these third parties or our own systems could expose us to liability and hurt our reputation and relationships with members and clients.

Our ability to maintain our proprietary services platform, including our digital health services, is dependent on the development and maintenance of the infrastructure of the internet and other telecommunications services by third parties, including bandwidth and telecommunications equipment providers. This includes maintenance of a reliable network connection with the necessary speed, data capacity and security for providing reliable internet access and services and reliable telephone and facsimile services. We exercise limited control over these third party providers.

Our platform is designed to operate without perceptible interruption in accordance with our service level commitments. We have, however, experienced limited interruptions in these systems in the past, including server failures that temporarily slowed down or diminished the performance of our platform, and we may experience similar or more significant interruptions in the future. We do not currently maintain redundant systems or facilities for some of these services. Interruptions to third party systems or services, whether due to system failures, cyber incidents (the risk of which has been higher due to the significant increase in remote work across the technology industry as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and related shelter-in-place orders), physical or electronic break-ins or other events, could affect the security or availability of our platform or services and prevent or inhibit the ability of our members or providers to access our platform or services. In the event of a catastrophic event with respect to one or more of these

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systems or facilities, we may experience an extended period of system unavailability, which could result in substantial costs to remedy those problems or harm our relationship with our members and our business.

Additionally, any disruption in the network access, telecommunications or co-location services provided by third-party providers or any failure of or by third-party providers’ systems or our own systems to handle current or higher volumes of use could significantly harm our business. The reliability and performance of our third-party providers’ systems and services may be harmed by increased usage or by denial-of-service attacks or related cyber incidents, which has increased due to more opportunities created by remote work necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic and related shelter-in-place orders. Any errors, failures, interruptions or delays experienced in connection with these third-party services or our own systems could hurt our ability to deliver our services platform and damage our relationships with health network partners, enterprise clients and members and expose us to third-party liabilities, which could in turn harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We rely on third-party vendors to host and maintain our technology platform.

We rely on third-party vendors to host and maintain our technology platform. Our ability to operate our business is dependent on maintaining our relationships with third-party vendors and entering into new relationships to meet the changing needs of our business. Any deterioration in our relationships with such vendors or our failure to enter into agreements with vendors in the future could significantly disrupt our operations or hinder our ability to execute our growth strategies. Because we rely on certain vendors to store and process our data, it is possible that, despite precautions taken at our vendors’ facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, cyber incident, decision to close the facilities without adequate notice or other unanticipated problems could result in our non-compliance with privacy laws and regulations, loss of proprietary information, personal information, and other confidential information, and disruption to our technology platform. These service interruptions could also cause our platform to be unavailable to our health network partners, enterprise clients and members, and impair our ability to deliver services and negatively impact our relationships with new and existing health network partners, enterprise clients and members.

Some of our vendor agreements may be unilaterally terminated by the vendor for convenience, including with respect to Amazon Web Services, and if such agreements are terminated, we may not be able to enter into similar relationships in the future on reasonable terms or at all. We may also incur substantial costs, delays and disruptions to our business in transitioning such services to ourselves or other third-party vendors. In addition, third-party vendors may not be able to provide the services required in order to meet the changing needs of our business. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If our or our vendors’ security measures fail or are breached and unauthorized access to our employees’, contractors’, members’, clients’ or partners’ data is obtained, our services may be perceived as insecure, we may incur significant liabilities, including through private litigation or regulatory action, our reputation may be harmed, and we could lose members, clients and partners.

Our services and operations involve the storage and transmission of confidential and sensitive data, including the personal information (including health information) of employees, contractors, clients, partners, members and others. Because of the sensitivity of the information we store and transmit, the security features of our and our third-party vendors’ computer, network, and communications systems infrastructure are critical to the success of our business. A breach or failure of our or our third-party vendors’ security measures could result from a variety of circumstances and events, including third-party action, employee negligence or error, malfeasance, computer viruses, cyber-attacks by computer hackers, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software and databases, power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication failures, user errors, or catastrophic events. Some cybersecurity or other breach incidents may remain undetected for an extended period of time.

Information security risks have generally increased in recent years because of the proliferation of new technologies and the increased number, sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyber-attacks. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched, we or our third-party vendors may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventive measures. The risk of cyber-attacks is heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic as we and our vendors move to remote work which poses more vulnerabilities susceptible to exploitation. As cyber threats continue

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to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to further enhance our information security measures and/or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. If our or our third-party vendors’ security measures fail or are breached, it could result in unauthorized access to sensitive confidential information and personal information (including health information), a loss of or damage to our data, an inability to access data sources, or process data or provide our services. Such failures or breaches of our or our third-party vendors’ security measures, or our or our third-party vendors’ inability to effectively resolve such failures or breaches in a timely manner, could severely damage our reputation, adversely impact customer, partner, member or investor confidence in us, and reduce the demand for our services. In addition, we could face litigation, significant damages for contract breach or other breaches of law, significant monetary penalties, or regulatory actions for violation of applicable laws or regulations, and incur significant costs for remedial or preventative measures. Although we maintain insurance covering certain security and privacy damages and claim expenses, we may not carry insurance or maintain coverage sufficient to compensate for all liability and in any event, insurance coverage would not address the reputational damage that could result from a security incident. If an actual or perceived breach of our or our third-party vendors’ security occurs, or if we or our third-party vendors are unable to effectively resolve a breach in a timely manner, we could lose current and potential members, partners and clients, which could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Our proprietary technology platform may not operate properly, which could damage our reputation, subject us to claims or require us to divert application of our resources from other purposes, any of which could harm our business and growth.

 

Our proprietary technology platform provides members with the ability to, among other things, register for our services, request a visit (either scheduled or on demand) and communicate and interact with providers, and allows our providers to, among other things, chart patient notes, maintain medical records, and conduct visits (via video, phone or the internet). Proprietary software development is time-consuming, expensive and complex, and may involve unforeseen difficulties. We may encounter technical obstacles, and it is possible that we may discover additional problems that prevent our proprietary software from operating properly. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, use of virtual care, including remote visits, has increased, which places a heavier demand on our technology platform and may cause performance levels to deteriorate. In addition, we are quickly introducing new features and functions within our technology platform to meet the needs of our members and providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. These features and functions may contain bugs or errors that could impact usability as well as technology and clinical operations. We continue to implement software with respect to a number of new applications and services. The operation of our technology also depends in part on the performance of third-party service providers. If our technology platform does not function reliably or fails to achieve member, provider, partner or client expectations in terms of performance, we may be required to divert resources allocated for other business purposes to address these issues, may suffer reputational harm, lose or fail to grow member usage, fail to retain or grow provider talent, members, partners and clients, and may be subject to liability claims.

The information that we provide to our health network partners, enterprise clients and members could be inaccurate or incomplete, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We provide healthcare-related information for use by our health network partners, enterprise clients and members. Because data in the healthcare industry is fragmented in origin, inconsistent in format and often incomplete, the overall quality of data in the healthcare industry is poor, and we frequently discover data issues and errors. If the data that we provide to our health network partners, enterprise clients and members is incorrect or incomplete or if we make mistakes in the capture or input of this data, our reputation may suffer and our ability to attract and retain health network partners, enterprise clients and members may be harmed. In addition, a court or government agency may take the position that our storage and display of health information exposes us to personal injury liability or other liability for wrongful delivery or handling of healthcare services or erroneous health information, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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If we cannot implement or optimize our technology solutions for members, integrate our systems with health network partners or resolve technical issues in a timely manner, we may lose clients and partners and our reputation may be harmed.

Our health network partners utilize a variety of data formats, applications, systems and infrastructure. Moreover, each health network partner may have a unique technology ecosystem and infrastructure. To maintain our strategic relationships with such partners, our services must be seamlessly integrated and interoperable with our partners’ complex systems, which may cause us to incur significant upfront and maintenance costs. Additionally, we do not control our partners’ integration schedules. As a result, if our partners do not allocate the internal resources necessary to meet their integration responsibilities, which resources can be significant as many of them are large healthcare institutions with substantial operations to manage, or if we face unanticipated integration difficulties, the integration may be delayed. In addition, competitors with more efficient operating models with lower integration costs could jeopardize our partner relationships. If the integration process with our partners is not executed successfully or if execution is delayed, we could incur significant costs, partners could become dissatisfied and decide not to continue a strategic contractual relationship with us beyond an initial period during their term commitment or, in some cases, revenue recognition could be delayed, any of which could harm our business and results of operations.

Our members depend on our digital health platform, including our mobile app, web portal, and support services to access on-demand digital health services or schedule in-office visits. We may be unable to quickly accommodate increases in member technology usage, particularly as we increase the size of our membership base and as the COVID-19 pandemic drives more member demand for our digital health services and virtual care. We also may be unable to modify the format of our technology solutions and support services to compete with developments from our competitors. If we are unable to further develop and enhance our technology solutions or maintain effective technical support services to address members’ needs or preferences in a timely fashion, our members, clients and partners may become dissatisfied, which could damage our ability to maintain or expand our membership and business. While any refunds or credits we have issued historically have not had a significant impact on net revenue, we cannot assure you as to whether we may need to issue additional refunds or credits for membership fees in the future as a result of member or client dissatisfaction. For example, our members expect on-demand healthcare services through our mobile app and rapid in-office visit scheduling. Failure to maintain these standards or negative publicity related to our technology solutions, regardless of its accuracy, may reduce our overall NPS, harm our reputation and cause us to lose current or potential members, enterprise clients or partners. In addition, our enterprise clients expect our technology solutions to facilitate long-term cost of care reductions through high employee digital engagement, which we market as potential benefits for employers in providing employees with One Medical memberships. If employers do not perceive our solutions and services as providing such efficiencies and cost savings, they may terminate their contracts with us or elect not to renew. Any such outcomes could also negatively affect our ability to contract with new enterprise clients through damage to our reputation. If any of these were to occur, our revenue may decline and our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be harmed.

Risks Related to Taxation

Certain U.S. state tax authorities may assert that we have a state nexus and seek to impose state and local income taxes which could harm our results of operations.

As of December 31, 2020, we are qualified to operate in, and file income tax returns in, 12 states as well as Washington, D.C. There is a risk that certain state tax authorities where we do not currently file a state income tax return could assert that we are liable for state and local income taxes based upon income or gross receipts allocable to such states. States are becoming increasingly aggressive in asserting a nexus for state income tax purposes. We could be subject to state and local taxation, including penalties and interest attributable to prior periods, if a state tax authority successfully asserts that our activities give rise to a nexus. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest may adversely impact our results of operations.

Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

In general, under Section 382 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating losses, or NOLs, to offset future taxable income. A Section 382 “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more

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stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of our stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. As of December 31, 2020, we have $398.1 million of federal net operating loss carryforwards and $465.2 million of state and local net operating loss carryforwards. The federal net operating loss carryforwards of $261.4 million arising after 2017 carry forward indefinitely, but the deduction for these carryforwards is limited to 80% of post-2020 current-year taxable income. The federal net operating loss carryforwards of $136.7 million from prior years will begin to expire in 2025. The state and local net operating loss carryforwards begin to expire in 2024. The Company has identified $25.2 million and $31.7 million of the above federal and state net operating losses, respectively, in the PCs that will expire unused due to prior ownership changes. In addition, future changes in our stock ownership, some of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code, further limiting our ability to utilize NOLs arising prior to such ownership change in the future. There is also a risk that due to statutory or regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. We have recorded a full valuation allowance against the deferred tax assets attributable to our NOLs.

Taxing authorities may successfully assert that we should have collected or in the future should collect sales and use or similar taxes for our membership and enterprise offerings which could negatively impact our results of operations.

 

We do not collect sales and use and similar taxes in any states for our membership and enterprise offerings based on our belief that our services are not subject to such taxes in any state. Sales and use and similar tax laws and rates vary greatly from state to state. Certain states in which we do not collect such taxes may assert that such taxes are applicable, which could result in tax assessments, penalties and interest with respect to past services, and we may be required to collect such taxes for services in the future. For example, the State of New York audited our sales and use tax records from March 2011 through February 2017 and issued a determination that we owe back taxes, penalties and interest. While we are disputing the results of the audit, we may not be successful, in which case we may be required to make payments in tax assessments, penalties or interest, and may be required to collect sales and use taxes in the future. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest or future requirements may negatively impact our results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property protection for our business assets or if the scope of our intellectual property protection is not sufficiently broad, others may be able to develop and commercialize technology and solutions substantially similar to ours, and our ability to conduct business may be compromised.

Our business depends on proprietary technology and other business assets, including software, processes, databases, confidential information and know-how, the protection of which is crucial to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of trademark, trade-secret and copyright laws, confidentiality policies and procedures, cybersecurity practices and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property. We do not currently own any issued patents. Third parties, including our competitors, may have or obtain patents relating to technologies that overlap or compete with our technology, which they may assert against us to seek licensing fees or preclude the use of our technology. 

We may, over time, increase our investment in protecting our intellectual property through additional trademark, patent, copyright and other intellectual property filings, which could be expensive and time-consuming. While our operations are currently based in the United States, we may also be required to protect our intellectual property in foreign jurisdictions, a process that can be prolonged and costly, and one that we may choose not pursue in every instance. We may not be able to obtain protection for our technology and even if we are successful, it is expensive to maintain intellectual property rights and the costs of defending our rights could be substantial. Moreover, these measures may not be sufficient to offer us meaningful protection or provide us with any competitive advantage. Furthermore, changes to U.S. intellectual property laws may jeopardize the enforceability and validity of our intellectual property portfolio and harm our ability to obtain patent protection of certain inventions.

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If we are unable to adequately protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our competitive position and our business could be harmed, as competitors may be able to commercialize similar offerings without having incurred the development and licensing costs that we have incurred. Any of our owned or licensed intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed, misappropriated or violated, our trade secrets and other confidential information could be disclosed in an unauthorized manner to third parties, which could result in costly redesign efforts, business disruptions, discontinuance of some of our offerings or other competitive harm.

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.

Third parties, including our competitors, could infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate our intellectual property rights. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly. From time to time, we seek to analyze our competitors’ solutions and services, and may in the future seek to enforce our rights against potential infringement, misappropriation or violation of our intellectual property. However, the steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to enforce our rights as against such infringement, misappropriation or violation of our intellectual property. We may not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate steps to enforce, our intellectual property rights. Any inability to meaningfully enforce our intellectual property rights could harm our ability to compete and reduce demand for our services. 

In recent years, companies are increasingly bringing and becoming subject to lawsuits and proceedings alleging infringement, misappropriation or violation of intellectual property rights, particularly patent rights. Our competitors and other third parties may hold patents or other intellectual property rights, which could be related to our business. We expect that we may receive in the future notices that claim we or our partners, clients or members using our solutions and services have misappropriated or misused other parties’ intellectual property rights, particularly as the number of competitors in our market grows and the functionality of applications amongst competitors overlaps. If we are found to infringe, misappropriate or violate another party’s intellectual property rights, we could be prohibited, including by court order, from further use of the intellectual property asset or be required to obtain a license from such third party to continue commercializing or using such technologies, solutions or services, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us, and it could require us to make substantial licensing and royalty payments. Accordingly, we may be forced to design around such violated intellectual property, which may be expensive, time-consuming or infeasible. In addition, we could be found liable for significant monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent or other intellectual property right. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could similarly harm our business. Any adverse outcome in such cases could affect our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims, regardless of merits and even if resolved in our favor, can be expensive, time consuming, and resource intensive. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions, or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing, or other business activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of intellectual property proceedings could harm our ability to compete in the marketplace. In addition, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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If we fail to comply with our license obligations, if our license rights are challenged, or if we cannot license rights to use technologies on reasonable terms, we may experience business disruption, increased costs, or inability to commercialize certain services.

We license certain intellectual property, including technologies and software from third parties, that are important to our business. In the future we may need to enter into additional agreements that provide us with licenses and rights to valuable intellectual property or technology. If we fail to comply with any of the obligations under our license agreements, we may be required to pay damages and the licensor may have the right to terminate the license. Termination by the licensor would cause us to lose valuable rights, and could disrupt or prevent us from providing our services, or adversely impact our ability to commercialize future solutions and services. In addition, our rights to certain technologies are licensed to us on a non-exclusive basis. The owners of these non-exclusively licensed technologies are therefore free to license them to third parties, including our competitors, on terms that may be superior to those offered to us, which could place us at a competitive disadvantage. Our licensors may also own or control intellectual property that has not been licensed to us and, as a result, we may be subject to claims, regardless of their merit, that we are infringing or otherwise violating the licensor’s rights. In addition, the agreements under which we license intellectual property or technology from third parties are generally complex, and certain provisions in such agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement. 

Moreover, the licensing or acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater development or commercialization capabilities. Companies that perceive us to be a competitor may also be unwilling to license or grant rights to us. Even if such licenses are available, we may be required to pay the licensor substantial fees or royalties. Such fees or royalties will become a cost of our operations and may affect our margins. If we are unable to obtain licenses on acceptable terms or at all, if any licenses are subsequently terminated, if our licensors fail to abide by the terms of the licenses, if our licensors fail to prevent infringement by third parties, or if the licensed intellectual property rights are found to be invalid or unenforceable, we could be restricted from commercializing our solutions and services and may be required to incur substantial costs to develop alternatives. Any of the foregoing could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our competitive position may be harmed.

The registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names that we own may be challenged, infringed, circumvented, declared generic, lapsed or determined to be infringing on or dilutive of other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights in these trademarks and trade names, which we need in order to build name recognition with the public. In addition, third parties have filed, and may in the future file, for registration of trademarks similar or identical to our trademarks, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. If they succeed in registering or developing common law rights in such trademarks, and if we are not successful in challenging such third-party rights, we may not be able to use these trademarks to develop brand recognition of our services. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered trademarks or trademarks that incorporate variations of our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names. If we are unable to establish or protect our trademarks and trade names, or if we are unable to build name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively, which could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

 

We rely heavily on trade secrets and confidentiality agreements to protect our unpatented know-how, technology, and other proprietary information, including our technology platform, and to maintain our competitive position. With respect to our technology platform, we consider trade secrets and know-how to be one of our primary sources of intellectual property. However, trade secrets and know-how can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect these trade secrets and other proprietary technology, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, contractors, consultants, advisors, clients,

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prospects, partners, and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary information. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets are misappropriated, improperly disclosed, or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, it could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants, or advisors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their current or former employers or claims asserting ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Many of our employees, consultants, and advisors are currently or were previously employed at other companies in our field, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants, and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the conception or development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who, in fact, conceives or develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. The assignment of intellectual property rights may not be self-executing, or the assignment agreements may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims that they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our use of open source software could compromise our ability to offer our services and subject us to possible litigation.

 

We use open source software in connection with our solutions and services. Companies that incorporate open source software into their solutions have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the use of open source software and compliance with open source license terms. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or claiming noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute software containing open source software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to the licensee’s software that incorporates, links or uses such open source software, and make available to third parties for no cost, any derivative works of the open source code created by the licensee, which could include the licensee’s own valuable proprietary code. While we monitor our use of open source software and try to ensure that none is used in a manner that would require us to disclose our proprietary source code or that would otherwise breach the terms of an open source agreement, such use could inadvertently occur, or could be claimed to have occurred, in part because open source license terms are often ambiguous. There is little legal precedent in this area and any actual or claimed requirement to disclose our proprietary source code or pay damages for breach of contract could harm our business and could help third parties, including our competitors, develop solutions and services that are similar to or better than ours. Any of the foregoing could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our stock price may be volatile, and the value of our common stock may decline.

 

The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile and may fluctuate or decline substantially as a result of a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control or are related in complex ways, including:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;

 

variance in our financial performance from expectations of securities analysts or investors;

 

changes in the pricing we offer our members;

 

changes in our projected operating and financial results;

 

the impact of COVID-19 on our financial performance, financial condition and results of operations, and the financial performance and financial condition of our health network partners, on our payers, our enterprise clients and others;

 

the impact of protests and civil unrest;

 

our relationships with our health network partners and any changes to or terminations of our contracts with the health network partners;

 

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our industry and our solutions and services;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, acquisitions, or new offerings;

 

publicity associated with issues with our services and technology platform;

 

our involvement in litigation, including medical malpractice claims and consumer class action claims;

 

any governmental investigations or inquiries into our business and operations or challenges to our relationships with the One Medical PCs under the ASAs or to our relationships with health network partners;

 

future sales of our common stock or other securities, by us or our stockholders;

 

changes in senior management or key personnel;

 

developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, including allegations that we have infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated any intellectual property of any third party;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations or principles;

 

actual or anticipated developments in our business, our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally, including competition or perceived competition from well-known and established companies or entities;

 

the trading volume of our common stock;

 

changes in the anticipated future size and growth rate of our market;

 

rates of unemployment; and

 

general economic, regulatory, and market conditions, including economic recessions or slowdowns.

 

Broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, regulatory, and market conditions, may negatively impact the market price of our common stock. In addition, given the relatively small public float of shares of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, the trading market for our shares may be subject to increased volatility. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us, because companies reliant on technology solutions have experienced significant stock price volatility in recent years. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.

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As a result of being a public company, we are obligated to maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting and any failure to maintain the adequacy of these internal controls may negatively impact investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations of The Nasdaq Global Select Market. In particular, we are required pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC following the date we are no longer an emerging growth company.

In 2019, we identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting resulting from an ineffective risk assessment process, which led to improperly designed controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Specifically, as a result of the ineffective risk assessment, we identified the following material weaknesses as we did not effectively design, implement and maintain: (i) adequate controls over the accounting for significant and unusual transactions (ii) adequate controls to address segregation of duties and (iii) adequate information technology general controls including the following: program change management, user access, computer operations controls and program development.

We remediated the material weakness related to segregation of duties as of September 30, 2020 and the material weaknesses related to accounting for significant and unusual transactions and information technology general controls as of December 31, 2020. However, the remediation of these material weaknesses does not provide assurance that our remediated controls will continue to operate properly or that our financial statements will be free from error.

We cannot assure you that the measures we have taken will be sufficient to avoid potential future material weaknesses. Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business and we may discover weaknesses in our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. Accordingly, there could be a possibility that a material misstatement of our financial statements would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities and our access to the capital markets could be restricted in the future.

A significant portion of our total outstanding common stock may be sold into the market in the near future. This could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. If our stockholders sell, or the market perceives that our stockholders intend to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly.

 

In addition, we filed a registration statement on Form S-8 registering the issuance of approximately 47.7 million shares of common stock subject to options or other equity awards issued or reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans. Shares registered under this registration statement on Form S-8 will be available for sale in the public market subject to vesting arrangements and exercise of options and, in the case of our affiliates, the restrictions of Rule 144.

 

Certain holders of our common stock and warrants to purchase common stock, or their transferees, also have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file one or more registration statements covering their shares or to

52


include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. If we were to register the resale of these shares, they could be freely sold in the public market without limitation. If these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline.

Concentration of ownership of our common stock among our executive officers, directors and principal stockholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.

Certain stockholders, including our executive officers, directors and holders of greater than 5% of our common stock outstanding, will continue to own a large portion of our outstanding common stock. These stockholders, acting together, will be able to significantly influence all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election and removal of directors and any merger or other significant corporate transactions. The interests of this group of stockholders may not coincide with the interests of other stockholders.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish unfavorable or inaccurate research about our business, our common stock price and trading volume could decline.

Our stock price and trading volume will be heavily influenced by the way analysts and investors interpret our financial information and other disclosures. If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, delay publishing reports about our business or publish negative reports about our business, regardless of accuracy, or cease covering us, our common stock price and trading volume could decline.

Even if our common stock is actively covered by analysts, we do not have any control over the analysts or the measures that analysts or investors may rely upon to forecast our future results. Over-reliance by analysts or investors on any particular metric to forecast our future results may result in forecasts that differ significantly from our own. Regardless of accuracy, unfavorable interpretations of our financial information and other public disclosures could have a negative impact on our stock price. If our financial performance fails to meet analyst estimates, for any of the reasons discussed above or otherwise, or one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or change their opinion of our common stock, our stock price would likely decline.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future and, as a result, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and may be restricted by the terms of any outstanding debt obligations. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.

We are an emerging growth company and our compliance with the reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

 

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act, and we expect to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved and extended adoption period for accounting pronouncements. We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive as a result of our reliance on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

53


We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to compliance with our public company responsibilities and corporate governance practices.

As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. We expect such expenses to further increase after we are no longer an emerging growth company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of Nasdaq, and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies. Furthermore, the senior members of our management team do not have significant experience with operating a public company. As a result, our management and other personnel will have to devote a substantial amount of time to compliance with these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we will incur as a public company or the timing of such costs. If, notwithstanding our efforts, we fail to comply with new laws, regulations and standards, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

Failure to comply with these rules might also make it more difficult for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we might be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. The impact of these events could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, on committees of our board of directors or as members of senior management.

Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents, under Delaware law and under the indenture governing our 2025 Notes could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our common stock.

Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that:

 

provide for a classified board of directors whose members serve staggered terms;

 

authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, shares of undesignated preferred stock with terms, rights, and preferences determined by our board of directors that may be senior to our common stock;

 

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be affected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;

 

specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairperson of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer;

 

establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;

 

prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors;

 

provide that our directors may be removed for cause only upon the vote of the holders of at least 66 2⁄3% of our outstanding shares of common stock;

 

provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum; and

 

require the approval of our board of directors or the holders of at least 66 2/3% of our outstanding shares of common stock to amend our bylaws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation.

These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Furthermore, the indenture governing our 2025 Notes requires us to repurchase

54


such notes for cash if we undergo certain fundamental changes and, in certain circumstances, to increase the conversion rate for a holder of our 2025 Notes. A takeover of us may trigger the requirement that we purchase our 2025 Notes and/or increase the conversion rate, which could make it more costly for a potential acquiror to engage in a business combination transaction with us. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our management could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, under certain circumstances, the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forums for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks subject matter jurisdiction, any state court located within the State of Delaware or, if all such state courts lack subject matter jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) is the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law for:

 

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

 

any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;

 

any action arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws; and

 

any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine.

These provisions would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America have exclusive jurisdiction. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims.

 

Our stockholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of, and consented to, the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation described in the preceding sentences.

 

To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. This may require significant additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions and there can be no assurance that the provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions.

 

These exclusive forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. If a court were to find either exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur further significant additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, all of which could harm our business.

 

55


Risks Related to Our Outstanding Notes

 

Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.

Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the 2025 Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

 

Regulatory actions and other events may adversely impact the trading price and liquidity of the 2025 Notes.

 

We expect that many investors in, and potential purchasers of, the 2025 Notes will employ, or seek to employ, a convertible arbitrage strategy with respect to the notes. Investors would typically implement such a strategy by selling short the common stock underlying the 2025 Notes and dynamically adjusting their short position while continuing to hold the notes. Investors may also implement this type of strategy by entering into swaps on our common stock in lieu of or in addition to short selling the common stock. 

The SEC and other regulatory and self-regulatory authorities have implemented various rules and taken certain actions, and may in the future adopt additional rules and take other actions, that may impact those engaging in short selling activity involving equity securities (including our common stock). Such rules and actions include Rule 201 of SEC Regulation SHO, the adoption by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. and the national securities exchanges of a “Limit Up-Limit Down” program, the imposition of market-wide circuit breakers that halt trading of securities for certain periods following specific market declines, and the implementation of certain regulatory reforms required by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. Any governmental or regulatory action that restricts the ability of investors in, or potential purchasers of, the notes to effect short sales of our common stock, borrow our common stock or enter into swaps on our common stock could adversely impact the trading price and the liquidity of our 2025 Notes.

We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the 2025 Notes in cash or to repurchase the notes upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the 2025 Notes. 

 

Subject to limited exceptions, holders of the 2025 Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their 2025 Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2025 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, as described under Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, upon conversion of the 2025 Notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the 2025 Notes being converted as described under Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of 2025 Notes surrendered therefor or 2025 Notes being converted. In addition, our ability to repurchase the 2025 Notes or to pay cash upon conversions of the 2025 Notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our existing or future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase 2025 Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the 2025 Notes as required by the indenture would constitute a default under the indenture governing the 2025 Notes. A default under the indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our existing or future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the 2025 Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.

56


The conditional conversion feature of the 2025 Notes, if triggered, may adversely impact our financial condition and operating results. 

 

In the event the conditional conversion feature of the 2025 Notes is triggered, holders of 2025 Notes will be entitled to convert the 2025 Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their 2025 Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely impact our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their 2025 Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the 2025 Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a significant reduction of our net working capital.

The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as the 2025 Notes, could have a material effect on our reported financial results. 

 

Under ASC Topic 470-20, “Debt with conversion and other options” (“ASC 470-20”), an entity must separately account for the liability and equity components of the convertible debt instruments (such as the 2025 Notes) that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion in a manner that reflects the issuer’s economic interest cost. The effect of ASC 470-20 on the accounting for the 2025 Notes is that the equity component is required to be included in the additional paid-in capital section of stockholders’ equity on our consolidated balance sheet at issuance, and the value of the equity component would be treated as original issue discount for purposes of accounting for the debt component of the 2025 Notes. As a result, we will be required to record a greater amount of non-cash interest expense in current periods presented as a result of the amortization of the discounted carrying value of the 2025 Notes to their face amount over the term of the 2025 Notes. We will report larger net losses or lower net income in our financial results because ASC 470-20 will require interest to include both the current period’s amortization of the debt discount and the instrument’s non-convertible coupon interest rate, which could adversely impact our reported or future financial results, the trading price of our common stock and the trading price of the 2025 Notes. 

 

Accounting standards in the future will result in changes to the current ASC 470-20 accounting model. The Financial Accounting Standards Board issued an accounting standard update that eliminates the liability and equity component separation model for convertible debt instruments with a cash conversion feature. Among other potential impacts, this change is expected to reduce reported interest expense, increase reported net income or lower net loss and result in a reclassification of certain balance sheet amounts from stockholders' equity to liabilities as it relates to the Notes.

 

 

57


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

Our headquarters are located in San Francisco, California and consist of approximately 60,874 square feet of leased space. Our lease on this space expires on July 31, 2029. As of December 31, 2020, we lease an additional combined 423,911 square feet of clinical space for the One Medical PCs pursuant to our ASAs. We believe that our headquarters and other offices are adequate for our immediate needs and that additional or substitute space is available if needed to accommodate growth and expansion.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

We are currently involved in, and may in the future become involved in, legal proceedings, claims and investigations in the ordinary course of our business, including medical malpractice and consumer claims. Although the results of these legal proceedings, claims and investigations cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not believe that the final outcome of any matters that we are currently involved in are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Regardless of final outcomes, however, any such proceedings, claims, and investigations may nonetheless impose a significant burden on management and employees and be costly to defend, with unfavorable preliminary or interim rulings.

Please see Note 19, “Commitments and Contingencies” to our consolidated financial statements in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of our legal proceedings.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

58


PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information

Our common stock has been listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ONEM” since January 31, 2020. Prior to that, there was no public trading market for our common stock.

Holders of Record

As of the close of business on February 26, 2021, there were approximately 100 stockholders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders, and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock and do not intend to declare or pay any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to support operations and to finance the growth and development of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions and capital requirements. Our future ability to pay cash dividends on our capital stock may be limited by the terms of any future debt or preferred securities.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

The information required by this item will be set forth in the Proxy Statement and is incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K by reference.

59


Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the 11-month total stockholder return on our common stock with the comparable cumulative returns of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (“S&P 500”) and the S&P Health Care Index (“S&P Health Care”). This graph assumes that on January 31, 2020, the initial trading day of our common stock on Nasdaq, $100 was invested in our common stock and in each of the other two indices and assumes the reinvestment of any dividends. However, no dividends have been declared on our common stock to date. The stock price performance on the following graph represents past performance and is not necessarily indicative of possible future stock price performance.

 

 

 

 

1/31/2020 (1)

 

 

2/29/2020

 

 

3/31/2020

 

 

4/30/2020

 

 

5/31/2020

 

 

6/30/2020

 

 

7/31/2020

 

 

8/31/2020

 

 

9/30/2020

 

 

10/31/2020

 

 

11/30/2020

 

 

12/31/2020

 

1Life Healthcare Inc

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

97.96

 

 

$

82.24

 

 

$

111.78

 

 

$

146.35

 

 

$

164.57

 

 

$

134.16

 

 

$

132.17

 

 

$

128.50

 

 

$

127.82

 

 

$

148.94

 

 

$

197.78

 

S&P 500

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

91.77

 

 

$

80.43

 

 

$

90.74

 

 

$

95.07

 

 

$

96.96

 

 

$

102.42

 

 

$

109.79

 

 

$

105.61

 

 

$

102.81

 

 

$

114.06

 

 

$

118.45

 

S&P Health Care

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

93.34

 

 

$

89.77

 

 

$

101.12

 

 

$

104.45

 

 

$

101.97

 

 

$

107.46

 

 

$

110.32

 

 

$

107.95

 

 

$

103.97

 

 

$

112.23

 

 

$

116.62

 

 

 

(1)

$100 invested on 1/31/2020 in shares and in indices

 

The information above shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that section, and shall not be incorporated by reference into any of our other filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, regardless of any general incorporation language in those filings.

 

60


Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.

Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities

On January 30, 2020, our registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-235792) relating to the initial public offering of our common stock was declared effective by the SEC. Pursuant to such registration statement, we issued and sold an aggregate of 20,125,000 shares of our common stock at a price of $14.00 per share for aggregate cash proceeds of approximately $258.2 million, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and offering costs, which includes the full exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of common stock. No payments for offering expenses were made directly or indirectly to (i) any of our officers or directors or their associates, (ii) any persons owning 10% or more of any class of our equity securities or (iii) any of our affiliates. J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC acted as joint-bookrunning managers for the offering.

There has been no material change in the expected use of the net proceeds from our initial public offering, as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC on February 3, 2020 pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

61


Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

 

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are derived from the audited consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2017 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in any period in the future.

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations

   Data (in thousands, except share and per

   share data):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net revenue

 

$

380,223

 

 

$

276,258

 

 

$

212,678

 

 

$

176,769

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of care, exclusive of depreciation and

   amortization shown separately below

 

 

234,959

 

 

 

167,618

 

 

 

136,180

 

 

 

120,705

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

36,967

 

 

 

39,520

 

 

 

25,789

 

 

 

19,172

 

General and administrative

 

 

157,282

 

 

 

108,965

 

 

 

85,808

 

 

 

57,964

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

22,374

 

 

 

14,268

 

 

 

9,947

 

 

 

10,686

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

451,582

 

 

 

330,371

 

 

 

257,724

 

 

 

208,527

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(71,359

)

 

 

(54,113

)

 

 

(45,046

)

 

 

(31,758

)

Other income (expense), net:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

 

1,809

 

 

 

4,498

 

 

 

2,251

 

 

 

386

 

Interest expense

 

 

(13,434

)

 

 

(474

)

 

 

(804

)

 

 

(834

)

Change in fair value of redeemable

   convertible preferred stock warrant

   liability

 

 

(6,560

)

 

 

(3,519

)

 

 

(1,877

)

 

 

646

 

Total other income (expense), net

 

 

(18,185

)

 

 

505

 

 

 

(430

)

 

 

198

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(89,544

)

 

 

(53,608

)

 

 

(45,476

)

 

 

(31,560

)

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

 

 

(123

)

 

 

87

 

 

 

25

 

 

 

126

 

Net loss

 

 

(89,421

)

 

 

(53,695

)

 

 

(45,501

)

 

 

(31,686

)

Less: Net loss attributable to

   noncontrolling interest

 

 

(704

)

 

 

(1,141

)

 

 

(1,086

)

 

 

(889

)

Net loss attributable to 1Life Healthcare, Inc.

   stockholders

 

$

(88,717

)

 

$

(52,554

)

 

$

(44,415

)

 

$

(30,797

)

Net loss per share attributable to 1Life

   Healthcare, Inc. stockholders basic

   and diluted

 

$

(0.75

)

 

$

(2.84

)

 

$

(2.65

)

 

$

(2.05

)

Weighted average common shares

   outstanding — basic and diluted

 

 

118,379,300

 

 

 

18,476,127

 

 

 

16,735,541

 

 

 

15,002,472

 

62


 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term (1)

   marketable securities

 

$

682,998

 

 

$

146,536

 

 

$

230,561

 

 

$

42,785

 

Total assets (2)

 

 

1,070,990

 

 

 

430,294

 

 

 

326,319

 

 

 

132,507

 

Notes payable, current

 

 

-

 

 

 

3,282

 

 

 

7,598

 

 

 

10,750

 

Convertible senior notes

 

 

241,233

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Redeemable convertible preferred stock (1)

 

 

-

 

 

 

402,488

 

 

 

402,488

 

 

 

184,832

 

Total equity (deficit)

 

 

548,475

 

 

 

(184,031

)

 

 

(148,240

)

 

 

(119,784

)

 

 

(1)

In February 2020, we completed the initial public offering of our common stock in which we issued an aggregate of 20,125,000 shares of common stock for net proceeds of approximately $258.2 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering costs. Upon the completion of the offering, all 86,251,669 outstanding shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock were converted into an equal number of shares of common stock.

 

(2)

As of January 1, 2019, the impact of the adoption of the new lease standard, ASC 842, to the Company’s consolidated balance sheet includes the recognition of operating lease liabilities, current, of $9,643, operating lease liabilities, non-current, of $63,047 based on the present value of the remaining lease payments for existing operating leases with corresponding right-of-use assets of approximately $60,770.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report. This discussion includes both historical information and forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risk, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from management’s expectations and those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including, but not limited to, the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and societal and governmental responses as well as those discussed in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Overview

Our vision is to delight millions of members with better health and better care while reducing the total cost of care. Our mission is to transform health care for all through our human-centered, technology-powered model. We are a membership-based primary care platform with seamless digital health and inviting in-office care, convenient to where people work, shop, live and click. We are disrupting health care from within the existing ecosystem by simultaneously addressing the frustrations and unmet needs of key stakeholders, which include consumers, employers, providers, and health networks. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 549,000 members in 13 markets in the United States and greater than 8,000 enterprise clients.

We have developed a modernized healthcare membership model based on direct consumer enrollment as well as employer sponsorship. Our annual membership model includes seamless access to 24/7 digital health services paired with inviting in-office care routinely covered under health insurance programs. Our technology drives high monthly active usage within our membership, promoting ongoing and longitudinal patient relationships for better health outcomes and high member retention. Our technology also helps our service-minded team in building trust and rapport with our members by facilitating proactive digital health outreach as well as responsive on-demand virtual and in-office care. Our digital health services and our well-appointed offices, which tend to be located in highly convenient locations, are staffed by a team of clinicians who are not paid on a fee-for-service basis, and therefore free of misaligned compensation incentives prevalent in health care. Additionally, we have developed clinically integrated partnerships with health networks, better coordinating more timely access to specialty care when needed by members, while advancing value-based care for employers through clinical and digital integration.

Together, these components of our human-centered and technology-powered model allow us to deliver better results for key stakeholders.

Our focus on simultaneously addressing the unfulfilled needs and frustrations of key stakeholders has allowed us to consistently grow the number of members we serve. Since 2007, we have grown to 549,000 members and 107 medical offices in 13 markets across the United States as of December 31, 2020. From December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020, we grew our membership by 339%. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, our net revenue grew 247%, our digital interactions with our members grew 533%, and the number of in-office visits by our members grew 145%.

Impact of Covid-19 on Our Business

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and may continue to impact our operations, and net revenues, expenses, collectability of accounts receivables and other money owed, capital expenditures, liquidity, and overall financial condition.

During the first half of 2020, we believe the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted our business, as many of the communities we serve promoted self-isolation practices, and as shelter-in-place requirements were enacted. These measures and practices reduced in-office visits, and also resulted in temporary closures of certain offices and delays in openings of some of our new medical offices which negatively affected our net revenue. Correspondingly, our cost of care as a percentage of net revenue and loss from operations also increased.

During the second half of 2020, we believe the COVID-19 pandemic helped drive an increase in membership and increase in total revenue due to new and expanded service offerings and increase in aggregate billable services.

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For example, we believe COVID-19 caused our value proposition to resonate with an even broader audience of consumers seeking access to primary care, as well as with an even broader audience of employers as they focus on safely reopening their workplaces and managing the ongoing health and well-being of employees and their families. As a result, we experienced increased demand for our memberships during the second half of 2020, adding more new members than in any other six-month period in our history.

In addition, we expanded our service offering in part as a response to COVID-19 and launched several new billable services, including:

 

COVID-19 testing, and counseling across all of our markets, including in our offices and in several mobile COVID-19 testing sites;

 

COVID-19 vaccinations in select geographies;

 

Healthy Together, our COVID-19 screening and testing program for employers, schools and universities;

 

Mindset by One Medical, our behavioral health service integrated within primary care;

 

One Medical Now, an expansion of our 24/7 on-demand digital health solutions to employees of enterprise clients located in geographies where we are not yet physically present; and,

 

Remote Visits, where our providers perform typical primary care visits with our members remotely from either one of our offices or from a provider’s home.

During the second half of 2020, our expanded service offering, particularly the increased demand for COVID-19 screening together with routine and preventative care deferred from the first half of the year, and increased demand for flu vaccines, helped us deliver total billable services in excess of pre-COVID-19 levels.

While the average reimbursement for these billable services remains below pre-COVID-19 levels, total aggregate reimbursement exceeded pre-COVID-19 levels.

We believe the precautionary measures and challenges resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic will likely continue for the duration of the pandemic, which is uncertain, and may present additional challenges to our business, financial condition and results of operations while the pandemic continues. As a result, we cannot assure you that our recent increase in membership, aggregate reimbursement and revenue are indicative of future results or will be sustained, including following the COVID-19 pandemic, or that we will not experience additional impacts associated with COVID-19, which could be significant.

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) was enacted on March 27, 2020. Intended to provide economic relief to those impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, the CARES Act includes various tax and lending provisions, among others. Under the CARES Act, we received an income grant of $2.6 million from the Provider Relief Fund administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”), which was recognized as Grant income during the year ended December 31, 2020. Please see Note 5, Revenue Recognition, to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

COVID-19 has also disrupted or delayed delivery of materials and products in the supply chain for our offices, including protective equipment for healthcare providers, caused staffing shortages, and increased capital expenditures due to the need to buy incremental hardware.

Given the uncertainty around the duration and extent of the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot accurately predict at this time the future potential impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. As of December 31, 2020, we had cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities of $683.0 million and $316.3 million principal amount of debt outstanding.

 

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Our Business Model

We have developed a modernized healthcare membership model based on direct consumer enrollment as well as employer sponsorship. Our annual membership model includes seamless access to 24/7 digital health paired with inviting in-office care routinely covered under health insurance programs. Our members join either individually as consumers by paying an annual membership fee or are sponsored by an enterprise client who purchases a subscription for their employees and, increasingly, their dependents. All members have actively registered with us. Digital health services are delivered via our mobile app and website, through such modalities as video and voice encounters, chat and messaging, and our in-office care is delivered at any of our medical offices. As of December 31, 2020, we had 107 medical offices, including some on-site medical offices at certain enterprise clients which are closed as a result of the current COVID-19 pandemic.

We derive net revenue from multiple stakeholders, including consumers, employers, and health networks. We recognize net revenue as (i) membership revenue from employer and consumer subscription fees, including fees paid for our One Medical Now service offering (ii) partnership revenue predominantly on a PMPM basis from health networks, largely fixed payments from enterprise clients for on-site medical services, COVID-19 on-site testing services for enterprise clients, schools and universities where we typically bill such customers directly for the services we perform, and capitation payments from IPAs and (iii) net patient service revenue on a per visit basis from health insurers and patients, including COVID-19 testing services for members that are being billed to health insurers or patients. We are in-network with most health insurance plans in all of our markets.

We generate a portion of our revenue through membership fees charged to either consumer members or enterprise clients. As of December 31, 2020, our list price for new members for an annual consumer membership was $199. Our enterprise clients typically pay a discounted fee collected in advance, based on a rate per employee per month.

We have entered into clinically integrated care partnerships with health networks, which generate revenue either through fee-for-service reimbursements for member in-office visits under the health network’s contracts or as PMPM payments. For our health network arrangements that provide for PMPM payments, when our medical offices provide professional clinical services to covered members, we, as administrator, perform billing and collection services on behalf of the health network, and the health network receives the fees for services provided, including those paid by members’ insurance plans. In those circumstances, we earn PMPM payments in lieu of per visit fees for services from member office visits. See “Business—Our Health Network Partnerships.”

We generate partnership revenue from (i) our health network partners on a PMPM basis, (ii) largely fixed price or fixed price per employee contracts with enterprise clients for on-site medical services, (iii) COVID-19 on-site testing services for enterprise clients, schools and universities where we typically bill such customers a fixed price per service performed or (iv) capitation payments from IPAs that contract with health maintenance organizations (“HMOs”) for medical services provided to covered participants.

Our membership fee revenue and partnership revenue are contractual and, with the exception of our COVID-19 on-site testing services, generally recurring in nature. Membership revenue and partnership revenue as a percentage of total net revenue was 60%, 47% and 32% for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increased percentage of revenue is, among other factors, due to new and expanded partnership with health networks since 2019, and COVID-19 on-site testing services since 2020.

The remainder of our net revenue is primarily received on a per visit fee-for-service basis from member health insurance plans or patients with billing rates based on our agreements with health network partners. We call this net patient service revenue. We use historical patient visit rates, our historical mix of services performed, and current reimbursement rates to help us analyze and explain historical net patient service revenue from this part of our business.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

 

Acquisition of Net New Members and Enterprise Clients. We believe that our ability to increase our membership will enable us to drive financial growth as members drive our membership revenue, partnership revenue and net patient service revenue. We continue to have significant opportunities to increase members in our existing markets through (i) new sales to consumers and enterprise clients, (ii) expansion of the number of enrolled members, including dependents, within our enterprise clients,

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and (iii) adding other potential services. Our ability to enroll new members either as consumer members or through enterprise clients will impact our results of operations. We define estimated activation rate for any enterprise client at a given time as the percentage of eligible lives enrolled as members. Some of our enterprise clients offer membership benefits to the dependents of their employees, for which we assume eligible lives include one dependent per employee. The levels of activation rates at our enterprise clients may also affect the renewal rates of our enterprise clients. While we do not regularly monitor activation rates and related metrics across enterprise clients, we may use these metrics to compare member activation across different enterprise clients and to look for opportunities for additional membership activation within existing enterprise clients. We also intend to acquire members by expanding into new markets. In 2020, we have expanded into four new markets by partnering with new and existing health networks.

 

Components of Revenue. Our ability to maintain or improve pricing levels for our memberships and the pricing under our contracts with health networks will impact our results of operations. As of December 31, 2020, our list price for new members for an annual consumer membership was $199. Our enterprise clients typically pay a discounted fee collected in advance, based on a rate per employee per month. As of December 31, 2020, all of our members were covered by health network partnerships. In geographies where our health network partners pay us on a PMPM basis, to the extent that the PMPM rate changes, our partnership revenue will change. Similarly, if the fixed price or number of employees